Karl J. Schmid

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The plant Arabidopsis thaliana occurs naturally in many different habitats throughout Eurasia. As a foundation for identifying genetic variation contributing to adaptation to diverse environments, a 1001 Genomes Project to sequence geographically diverse A. thaliana strains has been initiated. Here we present the first phase of this project, based on(More)
The simultaneous analysis of multiple genomic loci is a powerful approach to studying the effects of population history and natural selection on patterns of genetic variation of a species. By surveying nucleotide sequence polymorphism at 334 randomly distributed genomic regions in 12 accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana, we examined whether a standard neutral(More)
Genetic markers such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are essential tools for positional cloning, association, or quantitative trait locus mapping and the determination of genetic relationships between individuals. We identified and characterized a genome-wide set of SNP markers by generating 10,706 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from cDNA(More)
Population-based methods for the genetic mapping of adaptive traits and the analysis of natural selection require that the population structure and demographic history of a species are taken into account. We characterized geographic patterns of genetic variation in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana by genotyping 115 genome-wide single nucleotide(More)
Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between the actual and expected feed intake of an animal based on its BW and growth rate over a specified period. The biological mechanisms underlying the variation in feed efficiency in animals with similar BW and growth rate are not well understood. This study determined the relationship of feedlot feed(More)
In mammals and seed plants, a subset of genes is regulated by genomic imprinting where an allele's activity depends on its parental origin. The parental conflict theory suggests that genomic imprinting evolved after the emergence of an embryo-nourishing tissue (placenta and endosperm), resulting in an intragenomic parental conflict over the allocation of(More)
To date, the effect of natural selection on candidate genes underlying complex traits has rarely been studied experimentally, especially under ecologically realistic conditions. Here we report that the effect of selection on the flowering time gene FRIGIDA (FRI) reverses depending on the season of germination and allelic variation at the interacting gene(More)
The major goal of this project was the establishment of a tool for rapid mapping of new mutations and genotyping in Arabidopsis consisting of at least 100 evenly spaced framework markers. We assembled a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based marker set consisting of 112 polymorphic sites with average spacing of 1.15 Mbp derived from an SNP database that(More)
In genome projects of eukaryotic model organisms, a large number of novel genes of unknown function and evolutionary history ("orphans") are being identified. Since many orphans have no known homologs in distant species, it is unclear whether they are restricted to certain taxa or evolve rapidly, either because of a lack of constraints or positive Darwinian(More)
In this study, we present the genetic analysis of a new collection of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) using 42 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers that represent the seven chromosomes. The Barley1K (B1K) infrastructure consists of 1020 accessions collected in a hierarchical sampling mode (HSM) from 51 sites across Israel and represents the wide adaptive(More)