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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE There is increasing evidence that not only the monoaminergic but also the glutamatergic system is involved in the pathophysiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Hyperactivity of glutamate metabolism might be causally related to a hypoactive state in the dopaminergic system. Atomoxetine, a selective noradrenaline(More)
BACKGROUND The anaesthetic, analgesic, and neuroprotective effects of xenon (Xe) are believed to be mediated by a block of the NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor channel. Interestingly, the clinical profile of the noble gas differs markedly from that of specific NMDA receptor antagonists. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate whether Xe(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate CNS. Removal of the transmitter from the synaptic cleft by glial and neuronal glutamate transporters (GLTs) has an important function in terminating glutamatergic neurotransmission and neurological disorders. Five distinct excitatory amino-acid transporters have been(More)
Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate central nervous system. Removal of this transmitter from the synaptic cleft by glial and neuronal transporter systems plays an important role in terminating glutamatergic neurotransmission. The effects of different activators and blockers of PKA and PKC on glutamate uptake were studied in(More)
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most frequently diagnosed neurodevelopmental disorder. The norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibitor atomoxetine, the first nonstimulant drug licensed for ADHD treatment, also acts as an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist. The compound's effects on gene expression and protein levels of(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The phenothiazine derivative promethazine was first introduced into clinical practice as an antiallergic drug owing to its H1-receptor antagonizing properties. Nowadays, promethazine is primarily used as a sedative and/or as an antiemetic. The spectrum of clinically relevant effects is mediated by different molecular targets. Since(More)
Electrophysiological investigations of the spinal cord in animals have shown that pain sensitizes the central nervous system via glutamate receptor dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) related to an enhancement of pain perception. To expand these findings, we used functional magnetic resonance (fMRI), blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) and perfusion(More)
There is widespread acceptance that estrogen is involved in various steps of cellular differentiation during brain development. In the past years, we have demonstrated such a developmental role for estrogen in the rodent midbrain. Precisely, estrogen affects midbrain dopamine neurons with respect to functional and morphological maturation. On the cellular(More)
UNLABELLED Lipid emulsions are widely used as carriers for hypnotics such as propofol, etomidate, and diazepam. It is assumed that the emulsions alone exert no effect on cellular functions nor influence the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, or anesthetic and analgetic potency of the hypnotics they carry. To elucidate possible interactions between lipid(More)