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CD4+ class II-restricted T cells specific for self antigens are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of most human autoimmune diseases and molecular mimicry between foreign and self ligands has been implicated as a possible mechanism for their activation. In this report we introduce combinatorial peptide libraries as a powerful tool to identify(More)
The haemagglutinin protein (H) of measles virus (MV) binds to susceptible cells and collaborates with the fusion protein (F) to mediate fusion of the virus with the cell membrane. Binding and fusion activity of the virus can be monitored by haemagglutination and haemolysis, respectively, of monkey erythrocytes. Most monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) with(More)
Recently, it has been demonstrated that particulate substances penetrate preferentially into the hair follicles and that the penetration depth depends on the particle size. In the present study, the influence of the vehicle of the particulate substances on the penetration depth was investigated. Four different formulations (ethanolic suspension, aqueous(More)
The purine nucleotide cycle enzyme AMP deaminase (AMPD) catalyzes the irreversible hydrolytic deamination of AMP. The physiological function of the purine nucleotide cycle in the brain is unknown. In situ hybridization and immunocytochemical studies were performed to identify the regional and cellular expression of AMPD in rat brain with the goal of(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the CNS with associated axonal loss. There is strong evidence for an autoimmune pathogenesis driven by myelin-specific T cells. Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) induces a type of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in animals which is very MS-like since there are(More)
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and related arboviruses have been responsible for large epidemic outbreaks with serious economic and social impact. The immune mechanisms, which control viral multiplication and dissemination, are not yet known. Here, we studied the antibody response against the CHIKV surface antigens in infected patients. With plasma samples(More)
MHC class II molecules (MHC II) play a pivotal role in the cell-surface presentation of antigens for surveillance by T cells. Antigen loading takes place inside the cell in endosomal compartments and loss of the peptide ligand rapidly leads to the formation of a non-receptive state of the MHC molecule. Non-receptiveness hinders the efficient loading of new(More)
The rat ortholog of the WD40 repeat protein Wdr16 is abundantly expressed in testis and cultured ependymal cells. Low levels are found in lung and brain, respectively, while it is absent from kinocilia-free tissues. In testis and ependymal primary cultures, Wdr16 messenger RNA appears concomitantly with the messages for sperm-associated antigen 6, a(More)
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) constitute an essential part of the immune response against viral infections. Such CTL recognize peptides derived from viral proteins together with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules on the surface of infected cells, and usually require in vivo priming with infectious virus. Here we report that synthetic(More)
Complex synthetic peptide libraries with defined amino acids in one or more positions of the H-2Kb-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes SIINFEKL and RGYVYQGL and mixtures of 19 amino acids in the remaining positions were used to analyze the structural requirements of peptide binding to MHC class I molecules and antigen recognition by CTLs. This(More)