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Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive experiments have not been collected in such a way that they(More)
In this paper we report the complete nucleotide sequence of the larger segment (5312 nucleotides) of the bipartite RNA genome of Helicoverpa armigera stunt tetravirus (HaSV). HaSV therefore becomes the first member of the Tetraviridae, a virus family with a host range restricted to lepidopteran insects, whose genome has been completely sequenced. HaSV RNA 1(More)
The evolutionary importance of hybridization and introgression has long been debated. Hybrids are usually rare and unfit, but even infrequent hybridization can aid adaptation by transferring beneficial traits between species. Here we use genomic tools to investigate introgression in Heliconius, a rapidly radiating genus of neotropical butterflies widely(More)
The complete genomic sequence of kelp fly virus (KFV), originally isolated from the kelp fly, Chaetocoelopa sydneyensis, has been determined. Analyses of its genomic and structural organization and phylogeny show that it belongs to a hitherto undescribed group within the picorna-like virus superfamily. The single-stranded genomic RNA of KFV is 11,035(More)
This paper presents evidence that Thosea asigna virus (TaV) has a unique capsid expression strategy and is a member of the Nudaurelia beta-like genus of the Tetraviridae. Electron microscopy of TaV particles indicated a 38 nm, T = 4 icosahedral capsid similar in structure to that of Nudaurelia beta virus (NbetaV). TaV particles have a buoyant density of(More)
Methylation of cytosine is one of the main epigenetic mechanisms involved in controlling gene expression. Here we show that the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) genome possesses homologues to all the DNA methyltransferases found in vertebrates, and that 0.69% (+/-0.25%) of all cytosines are methylated. Identified methylation sites are predominantly(More)
The monopartite genome of Nudaurelia beta virus, the type species of the Betatetravirus genus of the family Tetraviridae, consists of a single-stranded positive-sense RNA (ss+RNA) of 6625 nucleotides containing two open reading frames (ORFs). The 5' proximal ORF of 5778 nucleotides encodes a protein of 215 kDa containing three functional domains(More)
Herbivorous insects use detoxification enzymes, including cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, glutathione S-transferases, and carboxy/cholinesterases, to metabolize otherwise deleterious plant secondary metabolites. Whereas Acyrthosiphon pisum (pea aphid) feeds almost exclusively from the Fabaceae, Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) feeds from hundreds of(More)
The use of conventional chemical insecticides and bacterial toxins to control lepidopteran pests of global agriculture has imposed significant selection pressure leading to the rapid evolution of insecticide resistance. Transgenic crops (e.g., cotton) expressing the Bt Cry toxins are now used world wide to control these pests, including the highly(More)