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BACKGROUND Little is known about the neural basis of elite performers and their optimal performance in extreme environments. The purpose of this study was to examine brain processing differences between elite warfighters and comparison subjects in brain structures that are important for emotion processing and interoception. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS(More)
BACKGROUND It is unclear whether and how elite athletes process physiological or psychological challenges differently than healthy comparison subjects. In general, individuals optimize exercise level as it relates to differences between expected and experienced exertion, which can be conceptualized as a body prediction error. The process of computing a body(More)
Extreme environments requiring optimal cognitive and behavioral performance occur in a wide variety of situations ranging from complex combat operations to elite athletic competitions. Although a large literature characterizes psychological and other aspects of individual differences in performances in extreme environments, virtually nothing is known about(More)
Five concurrent eye activity measures were used to model fatigue-related changes in performance during a visual compensatory tracking task. Nine participants demonstrated considerable variations in performance level during two 53-min testing sessions in which continuous video-based eye activity measures were obtained. Using a trackball, participants were(More)
Understanding the neural processes that characterize elite performers is a first step to develop a neuroscience model that can be used to improve performance in stressful circumstances. Adventure racers are elite athletes that operate in small teams in the context of environmental and physical extremes. In particular, awareness of team member's emotional(More)
Three visual search experiments evaluated the benefits and distracting effects of using luminance and flashing to highlight subclasses of symbols coded by shape and color. Each of three general shape/color classes (circular/blue, diamond/red, square/yellow) was divided into three subclasses by presenting the upper half, lower half, or entire symbol.(More)
Adrenergic responses during physical stress such as cold exposure have been reported to differ from those responses observed during cognitive activity. Both the separate and the combined effects of cold and cognitive activity on catecholamine activity were examined in six male subjects. Alterations in plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine showed different(More)
Visual, auditory event-related potentials, and brainstem auditory-evoked responses were recorded in as many as six young male subjects in order to study the effects of moderate cold air exposure on central nervous system functioning. Evoked potentials were recorded during repeated 50-min exposures to air of 4 and 22 degrees C; these levels of exposure(More)
The extent to which pattern reversal evoked potential amplitudes are distributed symmetrically over the scalp was investigated as a function of stimulus spatial frequency. Nine right-handed male subjects viewed sinusoidal grating stimuli of 4.0 and 0.5 c/deg phase reversed every 900 msec. A visual half-field configuration enabled selective stimulation of(More)
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