Karl E. Schaefer

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Light microscopic examination of kidney tissue of guinea pigs exposed to 1.5% CO2, 21% O2, and balance N2 for periods as long as 42 days and of rats exposed to the same CO2 concentrations for up to 91 days showed that the incidence of focal kidney calcification increased with length of exposure. Calcification occurred primarily in the tubules of the renal(More)
Data on pulmonary gas exchange were collected in breathhold dives to 90 feet in a tank and in open-sea breathhold dives to depths of 217.5 and 225 feet. Thoracic blood volume displacements were measured at depths of 25, 50, 90, and 130 feet, by use of the impedance plethysmograph. The open-sea dives were carried out with an average speed of descent of 3.95(More)
Studies of calcium and phosphorus metabolism and acid-base balance were carried out on three Fleet Ballistic Missile (FBM) submarines during prolonged exposure to elevated concentrations of CO2. The average CO2 concentration in the submarine atmosphere during patrols ranged from 0.85% to 1% CO2. In the three studies, in which 9--15 subjects participated,(More)
Medical reports from 885 Fleet Ballistic Missile (FBM) submarine patrols (7,650,000 man-days) were analyzed. The data were categorized and compared with data obtained by medical personnel from surface fleet personnel (1,215,918 man-days) during a continuous 7--8 months' deployment of surface vessels in 1973. Surface fleet personnel had a higher illness rate(More)
Using a 14C-labeled DMO, 36Cl and 3H method, we have determined the in vivo buffering capacity of lung, kidney, heart, skeletal muscle, and extracellular fluid (ECF) of guinea pigs during hypercapnia (FICO2 = 0.15). After 1 days' exposureto 15% CO2, both the relative CO2 buffer values (delta HCO3/deltapH) and the "%pH regulation" were lung greater than(More)