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An investigation has been made into the effect of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or 'Ecstasy') administration on the concentration of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), uptake of [3H]5-HT and [3H]paroxetine binding in rat cerebral cortex tissue. Four days after 2 injections of MDMA (20 mg/kg i.p., 6 hr apart) the concentrations of 5-HT and its metabolite(More)
In vitro ischemic preconditioning induced by subjecting rat cortical cultures to nonlethal oxygen-glucose deprivation protects against a subsequent exposure to otherwise lethal oxygen-glucose deprivation. We provide evidence that attenuation of the postsynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor- and Ca(2+)-dependent neurotoxicity underlies oxygen-glucose(More)
NMDA receptor antagonists, such as (+)-5-methyl-10, 11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo [a,d] cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate (MK-801), potently block glutamate-induced neuronal death in myriad in vitro cell models and effectively attenuate ischemic damage in vivo. In this report, a novel role for MK-801 and other NMDA receptor antagonists in preconditioning neurons to(More)
In a group of 23 hospital patients aged over 50 with Down's syndrome, psychological testing indicated that significant intellectual deterioration, which was un-related to chronological age, sex, length of hospitalisation, or earlier mental age, had occurred in nine. Clinically, there was no evidence in any patient of active physical illness, focal(More)
The sensitivity of six fluorophores to glutathione (GSH) was evaluated in living rat cortical neuronal/glial mixed cultures during the first 23 days in vitro (DIV). Four of the dyes require glutathione-S-transferase (GST) to form a fluorescent conjugate, potentially conferring specificity for GSH: these included(More)
Excessive mu-calpain activation has been linked to several cellular pathologies including excitotoxicity and ischemia. In erythrocytes and other non-central nervous system (CNS) cells, calpain activation is thought to occur following a Ca2+-induced translocation of inactive cytosolic enzyme to membranes and subsequent autolysis. In the present report, we(More)
Mechanisms responsible for anoxic/ischemic cell death in mammalian CNS grey and white matter involve an increase in intracellular Ca2+, however the routes of Ca2+ entry appear to differ. In white matter, pathological Ca2+ influx largely occurs as a result of reversal of Na+-Ca2+ exchange, due to increased intracellular Na+ and membrane depolarization. Na+(More)
The activity of the neuroprotective agent clomethiazole at glutamate and ion channel sites has been investigated. Dizocilpine (3.25 mg/kg intraperitoneally) provided almost total protection against the damage produced by infusion of N-methyl-DL-aspartate (NMDLA; 75 micrograms) into the right hippocampus. In contrast, clomethiazole (96 mg/kg(More)