Karl D Entian

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Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatly expanded by gene duplication, the largest family(More)
Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen with a high mortality rate that has also emerged as a paradigm for intracellular parasitism. We present and compare the genome sequences of L. monocytogenes (2,944,528 base pairs) and a nonpathogenic species, L. innocua (3,011,209 base pairs). We found a large number of predicted genes encoding surface and(More)
The plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) has become an important model species for the study of many aspects of plant biology. The relatively small size of the nuclear genome and the availability of extensive physical maps of the five chromosomes provide a feasible basis for initiating sequencing of the five chromosomes. The YAC (yeast artificial(More)
The expression of gluconeogenic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (encoded by the FBP1 gene) depends on the carbon source. Analysis of the FBP1 promoter revealed two upstream activating elements, UAS1FBP1 and UAS2FBP1, which confer carbon source-dependent regulation on a heterologous reporter gene. On glucose media neither element was activated, whereas after(More)
The higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) is an important model for identifying plant genes and determining their function. To assist biological investigations and to define chromosome structure, a coordinated effort to sequence the Arabidopsis genome was initiated in late 1996. Here we report one of the first milestones of this project, the(More)
Open reading frames (6116) of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were PCR-amplified from genomic DNA using 12,232 primers specific to the ends of the coding sequences; the success rate of amplification was 97%. PCR-products were made accessible to hybridization by being arrayed at very high density on solid support media using various robotic(More)
Nisin produced by Lactococcus lactis 6F3 is used as a food preservative and is the most important member of a group of peptide-antibiotics containing lanthionine bridges (lantibiotics) (N. Schnell, K.-D. Entian, U. Schneider, F. Götz, H. Zähner, R. Kellner, and G. Jung, Nature [London] 333:276-278, 1988). Nisin is ribosomally synthesized, and its structural(More)
The only DNA helicase essential for Escherichia coli viability is DnaB, the chromosome replication for helicase. In contrast, in Bacillus subtilis, in addition to the DnaB counterpart called DnaC, we have found a second essential DNA helicase, called PcrA. It is 40% identical to the Rep and UvrD DNA helicases of E. coli and 61% identical to the PcrA(More)
The lantibiotic nisin is produced by several strains of Lactococcus lactis. The complete gene cluster for nisin biosynthesis in L. lactis 6F3 comprises 15 kb of DNA. As described previously, the structural gene nisA is followed by the genes nisB, nisT, nisC, nisI, nisP, nisR, and nisK. Further analysis revealed three additional open reading frames, nisF,(More)
Gallidermin is a new member of the class of lanthionine-containing peptide antibiotics, which are summarized under the common name lantibiotics. The lantibiotic gallidermin is produced by Staphylococcus gallinarum (F16/P57) Tü3928, and it exhibits activities against the Propionibacteria, involved in acne disease. Gallidermin differs from the recently(More)