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BACKGROUND Recent publications have raised questions over the efficacy and clinically relevant effects of antidepressants that have been approved for the treatment of major depression. In this context, the European Commission requested that the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) and its scientific committee (CHMP) issue an opinion on these data under Article(More)
BACKGROUND Cognitive decline is common in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although some of the aetiological factors are known, it is not yet known whether drugs with anticholinergic activity (AA) contribute to this cognitive decline. Such knowledge would provide opportunities to prevent acceleration of cognitive decline in PD. OBJECTIVE To study whether the use(More)
An increasing number of longitudinal cohort studies have identified a risk increase for dementia by the chronic use of drugs with anticholinergic properties. The respective data from the German Study on Aging, Cognition and Dementia in Primary Care Patients (AgeCoDe) also showing risk increase (hazard ratio = 2.081) are reported here. The mechanisms by(More)
Clozapine is a tricyclic dibenzodiazepine derivative that is classified as an "atypical neuroleptic" drug for treatment of psychotic diseases. A 19-year-old schizophrenic female, treated with 400 mg clozapine per day, was admitted to the emergency department after ingestion of 5000 mg (50 x 100 mg tablets) of clozapine. Clozapine plasma level 2.5 hours(More)
The British Association for Psychopharmacology (BAP) coordinated a meeting of experts to review the evidence on the drug treatment for dementia. The level of evidence (types) was rated using a standard system: Types 1a and 1b (evidence from meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials or at least one controlled trial respectively); types 2a and 2b (one(More)
After supratentorial infarction crossed cerebellar diaschisis has been described. This report concerns the rare phenomenon of crossed cerebral diaschisis in cerebellar infarction. Relative distribution of cerebral and cerebellar blood flow was measured using three-dimensional, qualitative single-photon-emission-computed-tomography (SPECT) with a rotating(More)
The regional distribution of I-123 iofetamine (IMP) in the brain of 12 patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder was studied by single-photon computed emission tomography imaging. Patients who were either medication free (n = 4) or on lithium monotherapy (n = 8) were assessed serially in depressed/dysphoric, manic/hypomanic, or euthymic states. In 23(More)
The development of disease-modifying treatments for Alzheimer's disease requires innovative trials with large numbers of subjects and long observation periods. The use of blood, cerebrospinal fluid or neuroimaging biomarkers is critical for the demonstration of disease-modifying therapy effects on the brain. Suitable biomarkers are those which reflect the(More)
Abnormalities in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) have been reported to characterize depressive episodes; they are at least partly reversed by antidepressant treatment. Treatment-specific as well as response-related changes in rCBF have been reported. We explored the changes in rCBF induced by vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), a recently proposed(More)
During the past decade, a conceptual shift occurred in the field of Alzheimer's disease (AD) considering the disease as a continuum. Thanks to evolving biomarker research and substantial discoveries, it is now possible to identify the disease even at the preclinical stage before the occurrence of the first clinical symptoms. This preclinical stage of AD has(More)