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The stroma-vascular fraction (SVF) of human adipose tissue has recently been described to be composed of endothelial cells identified as CD34+/CD31+ cells, infiltrated/resident macrophages defined as CD14+/CD31+ cells, and a new cell population characterized as CD34+/CD31- cells. To elucidate the cell identity of the adipocyte precursor cells, fluorescent(More)
Desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma (DIA) and desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma (DIG) are rare intracranial tumors that mostly occur in the first 2 years of life and involve superficial cerebral cortex. Despite the large size of these lesions and some worrisome histological and radiological features, prognosis is generally favorable after gross total(More)
Inflammatory macrophages recruited at the site of damaged muscles progressively acquire an alternative activation profile. Inflammatory (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages exert various and even opposite functions. M1 cells amplify tissue damage, and M2 cells dispose of necrotic fibers and deliver survival signals to myogenic precursors,(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW White adipose tissue is necessary for optimal energy homeostasis and the excessive development of fat mass is clearly associated with the metabolic syndrome. The fact that adipocytes secrete a number of specific factors or 'adipokines' has forced a reassessment of the involvement of adipose tissue in a wide range of physiological and(More)
TNF-alpha plays an important role in the natural history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a systemic disease characterized by endothelial activation and synovial involvement with bone erosions. Neuroendocrine signals contribute as well to RA, but their role is poorly understood. We measured in 104 RA patients and in an equal number of sex- and age-matched,(More)
Pattern recognition receptors link metabolite and bacteria-derived inflammation to insulin resistance during obesity. We demonstrate that NOD2 detection of bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan (PGN) regulates metabolic inflammation and insulin sensitivity. An obesity-promoting high-fat diet (HFD) increased NOD2 in hepatocytes and adipocytes, and NOD2(-/-) mice(More)
The role of PPARs in the regulation of human adipose tissue secretome has received little attention despite its potential importance in the therapeutic actions of PPAR agonists. Here, we have investigated the effect of selective PPARgamma, PPARalpha, and PPARbeta/delta agonists on the production of adipokines by human subcutaneous adipose tissue. Antibody(More)
CONTEXT Adipocyte volume has been associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE Our purpose was to identify an adipocyte volume threshold linked with increased insulin resistance risk, and to examine its association with insulin resistance improvement after bariatric surgery. SETTING AND DESIGN We investigated two cohorts of(More)
7β-Hydroxycholesterol cytotoxicity has been shown in vivo and in vitro to be dependent on the accumulation of its esters. We show in our study, using a detergent-free raft preparation and LC/MS lipid content analysis, that membrane microdomains isolated from 7β-hydroxycholesterol-treated C6 cells have a reduced cholesterol: cholesterol ester ratio and(More)
The mechanisms underlying the relationships between nutritional status and immunity remain to be fully characterized. The present study was undertaken to analyze by flow cytometry, in the context of diet-induced obesity, the status of immune cells in subcutaneous, and epididymal fat depots in wild-type and immunodeficient Rag2−/− mice submitted to(More)