Karina M. Butler

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BACKGROUND The genetic analysis of human primary immunodeficiencies has defined the contribution of specific cell populations and molecular pathways in the host defense against infection. Disseminated infection caused by bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines is an early manifestation of primary immunodeficiencies, such as severe combined immunodeficiency.(More)
BACKGROUND Little information is available about the timing of mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV), and no interventions to decrease transmission rates have been identified. We examined the effect of risk factors, including mode of delivery, on the vertical transmission rate. METHODS Data from HCV-infected women and their infants from(More)
Children with perinatally acquired HIV-1 infection are surviving into adolescence and increasingly transitioning toward adult services. Planning appropriate services in adult life requires an understanding of their progress through pediatric care. We describe the demographic features, disease progression, antiretroviral therapy (ART), and resistance in(More)
Group B streptococci (GBS) have been recognised for more than three decades as a serious cause of perinatal morbidity and neonatal mortality. The aim of this study was to accurately determine the prevalence of GBS carriage and the serotype distribution among pregnant Irish women. 504 women attending antenatal clinics had two swabs (one perianal and one low(More)
Attention has focused on the possibility of cure for HIV infected infants if treated promptly following delivery. The 'Mississippi baby', who had very prolonged remission following ARV discontinuation, may represent a unique situation. We report an infant treated from birth, who seroreverted, remained virologically suppressed, and had undetectable HIV-1 RNA(More)
INTRODUCTION BCG vaccination is currently recommended for all newborns in Ireland except where specifically contraindicated. This paper describes a marked increase in the number of referrals of patients with localised complications after vaccination to two Dublin paediatric hospitals. This increase coincided with the introduction of a new strain of BCG(More)
Neurologic complications can occur with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection, usually after vesicular exanthem. We report the case of a previously healthy 14-year-old boy with aseptic meningitis as a result of reactivated-VZV infection without exanthem. Diagnosis was made by detection of VZV-DNA in cerebrospinal fluid. VZV should be considered in cases of(More)
Despite effective prevention strategies paediatric HIV infection remains an important condition in Ireland. To characterise presentation and identify barriers to optimal management a retrospective chart review of HIV-infected children presenting in Ireland, 2004-2011 was undertaken. Forty-two HIV-infected children were identified; (25 male). Median age at(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to determine vertical transmission rates of hepatitis C in 2 tertiary level maternity units. STUDY DESIGN This was a retrospective review of all hepatitis C-positive mothers and their pregnancy outcomes. RESULTS Of 74,629 deliveries, 559 liveborn infants were born to 545 hepatitis C mothers; the rate of antenatal(More)
To test the hypothesis that the infecting meningococcal serogroup modulates the presentation, course, and outcome of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD), we performed a retrospective review of cases of IMD in 407 children from 2 tertiary referral centers and 2 regional centers in Ireland. Patients infected with serogroup C meningococci (n=104) were older(More)