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Valproic acid (VPA) is a powerful teratogen causing birth defects in humans, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), if exposure occurs during the first trimester of embryogenesis. Learning and memory alterations are common symptoms of ASD, but underlying molecular and synaptic alterations remain unknown. We therefore studied plasticity-related mechanisms(More)
Trafficking of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPAR) between endosomes and the postsynaptic plasma membrane of neurons plays a central role in the control of synaptic strength associated with learning and memory. The molecular mechanisms of its regulation remain poorly understood, however. Here we show by biochemical and atomic force microscopy analyses(More)
The number of synaptic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) controls the strength of excitatory transmission. AMPARs cycle between internal endosomal compartments and the plasma membrane. Interactions between the AMPAR subunit GluR2, glutamate receptor interacting protein 1 (GRIP1), and the(More)
The growth of stem cells can be modulated by physical factors such as extracellular matrix nanotopography. We hypothesize that nanotopography modulates cell behavior by changing the integrin clustering and focal adhesion (FA) assembly, leading to changes in cytoskeletal organization and cell mechanical properties. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs)(More)
Reticulons are proteins of neuroendocrine cells localized primarily to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Despite their implication in cellular processes like apoptosis or axonal regeneration, their intracellular molecular function is still largely unknown. Here, we show that reticulon 1-C can be detected in a protein complex of 150-200 kDa, and that a(More)
Transdifferentiation, where differentiated cells are reprogrammed into another lineage without going through an intermediate proliferative stem cell-like stage, is the next frontier of regenerative medicine. Wernig et al. first described the direct conversion of fibroblasts into functional induced neuronal cells (iNs). Subsequent reports of(More)
Incubation of Burkitt lymphoma-derived Raji cells at physiological temperature with submicromolar concentrations of humanized anti-CD20 antibody rituximab (RTX) redistributes CD20 to liquid-ordered, plasma membrane rafts. This accumulation of the CD20 tetraspan protein in rafts does not change the existing lipid and phosphoprotein composition but makes(More)
Although various approaches are routinely used to study receptor trafficking, a technology that allows for visualizing trafficking of single receptors at the surface of living cells remains lacking. Here we used atomic force microscope to simultaneously probe the topography of living cells, record the elastic properties of their surface, and examine the(More)
Cells sense cues in their surrounding microenvironment. These cues are converted into intracellular signals and transduced to the nucleus in order for the cell to respond and adapt its function. Within the nucleus, structural changes occur that ultimately lead to changes in the gene expression. In this study, we explore the structural changes of the nucleus(More)
Lateral mobility of AMPA-type glutamate receptors as well as their trafficking between plasma membrane and intracellular compartments are major mechanisms for the regulation of synaptic plasticity. Here we applied a recently established labeling technique in combination with lentiviral expression in hippocampal neurons to label individual ACP-tagged AMPA(More)