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Prior experience with the elevated plus maze (EPM) increases the avoidance of rodents to the open arms and impairs the anxiolytic-like effects of benzodiazepines on the traditional behaviors(More)
Electrical stimulation of the dorsal regions of the periaqueductal gray (PAG) leads to defensive reactions characterized as freezing and escape responses. Until recently it was thought that this(More)
Independent studies have shown that the median raphe nucleus (MRN) and dorsal hippocampus (DH) are involved in the expression of contextual conditioned fear (CFC). However, studies that examine the(More)
GABAergic neurons exert tonic control over the neural substrates of aversion in the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG). It has been shown that electrical stimulation of this region at freezing or(More)
The defensive responses induced by electrical stimulation of the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (dPAG) of the rat have been proposed as a model of panic attacks in humans. In the present study we(More)