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Accurate measurement of antiretroviral adherence is essential for targeting and rigorously evaluating interventions to improve adherence and prevent viral resistance. Across diseases, medication adherence is an individual, complex, and dynamic human behavior that presents unique measurement challenges. Measurement of medication adherence is further(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine if directly observed antiretroviral therapy (DOT) is more efficacious than self-administered therapy for improving adherence and reducing HIV viral load (VL) among methadone-maintained opioid users. DESIGN Two-group randomized trial. SETTING Twelve methadone maintenance clinics with on-site HIV care in the Bronx, New York. (More)
OBJECTIVE Alcoholism is a risk factor for osteoporotic fractures and low bone density, but the effects of moderate alcohol consumption on bone are unknown. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the associations between alcohol consumption and osteoporotic fractures, bone density and bone density loss over time, bone response to(More)
PURPOSE To compare the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab versus ranibizumab when administered according to a treat-and-extend protocol for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). DESIGN Multicenter, randomized, noninferiority trial with a noninferiority limit of 5 letters. PARTICIPANTS Patients aged ≥ 50 years with(More)
Our objective was to compare antiretroviral adherence questions to better understand concordance between measures. Among 53 methadone maintained HIV-infected drug users, we compared five measures, including two single item measures using qualitative Likert-type responses, one measure of percent adherence, one visual analog scale, and one multi-item measure(More)
Drug users are disproportionately affected by hepatitis C virus (HCV), yet they face barriers to health care that place them at risk for levels of HCV-related care that are lower than those of nondrug users. Substance abuse treatment physicians may treat more HCV-infected persons than other generalist physicians, yet little is known about how such(More)
BACKGROUND Methadone clinic-based directly observed antiretroviral therapy (DOT) has been shown to be more efficacious for improving adherence and suppressing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) load than antiretroviral self-administration. We sought to determine whether the beneficial effects of DOT remain after DOT is discontinued. METHODS We conducted a(More)
We review five innovative strategies to improve access, utilization, and adherence for HIV-infected drug users and suggest areas that need further attention. In addition, we highlight two innovative programs. The first increases access and utilization through integrated HIV and opioid addiction treatment with buprenorphine in a community health center, and(More)
BACKGROUND Directly observed therapy (DOT) programs for HIV treatment have demonstrated feasibility, acceptability, and improved viral suppression, but few have been rigorously tested. We describe a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of an antiretroviral DOT program in methadone maintenance clinics. Our objective was to determine if DOT is(More)
BACKGROUND The impact of adherence enhancing interventions on the relationship between active drug use and adherence is largely unknown. METHODS We conducted a 24-week randomized controlled trial of antiretroviral directly observed therapy (DOT) vs. treatment as usual (TAU) among HIV-infected methadone patients. Our outcome measure was pill count(More)