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OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to investigate the existence of an equine pain face and to describe this in detail. STUDY DESIGN Semi-randomized, controlled, crossover trial. ANIMALS Six adult horses. METHODS Pain was induced with two noxious stimuli, a tourniquet on the antebrachium and topical application of capsaicin. All horses(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of intra-articular (IA) versus IV administration of morphine on local and systemic inflammatory responses in horses with experimentally induced acute synovitis. ANIMALS 8 horses. PROCEDURES Each horse received the following 2 treatments 4 hours after synovitis was induced: IA administration of morphine (0.05 mg/kg) with(More)
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