Karin Timmermans

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International trade in health services appears to be increasing It may receive a further boost when liberalized and bound under international trade agreements, such as the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). Liberalization of trade in health services can create opportunities, but may also exacerbate preexisting problems. Moreover, once(More)
Traditional medicines play an important role in the provision of health care in many developing countries. Their use is also significant in developed countries, increasing their commercial value. Several 'high-profile' cases of patenting of traditional medicines, without consent from or compensation to their holders, have further focussed attention on their(More)
This article aims to draw attention to the process of harmonization of requirements for drug registration (the so-called ICH process) and to examine how it may affect access to medicines in developing countries. The ICH process, especially when seen in conjunction with the World Trade Organization's Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade, may create(More)
Most of our 10 countries are members of the World Trade Organization (WTO), but some of them are still observers and there is one that is not yet involved in any capacity. The three main players that are members of the WTO and that are at the forefront of the issues of health and trade in the Region happen to be Indonesia, Thailand, and India. They have(More)
February 2007 | Volume 4 | Issue 2 | e2 The Agreement on TradeRelated Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (the TRIPS Agreement, Box 1) has to a large extent harmonized standards for intellectual property rights, including patents. For many countries, the TRIPS standards were higher than their previous standards. For example, TRIPS obliges countries to(More)
Since the creation of the World Trade Organization (WTO), there has been considerable debate regarding the impact of its rules on public health. By contrast, the role of the WTO dispute settlement mechanism has received little attention, even though the bodies responsible for settling disputes are the ultimate interpreters of WTO rules and agreements. To(More)
From 1977 to 2002, the number of people with regular access to most of the medicines they need has increased from 2.1 billion to nearly 4 billion [1]. While a significant achievement, the other side of the same coin is however that some 2 billion people do not have such access. In order to expand access to the latter group, it may be useful to draw on the(More)
Developing countries like India that did not grant patent protection for pharmaceutical products prior to the TRIPS Agreement’s entry into force, were given until 1 January 2005 to introduce such protection. The introduction of 20-year product patents for medicines in India is significant not only because of its huge population, but also because Indian(More)
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