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BACKGROUND Open clinical trials indicate that low doses of pergolide, a long-acting D1 and D2 dopamine agonist, lead to a reduction in the symptoms of restless legs syndrome (RLS) with subjective improvement in sleep quality. OBJECTIVE To assess the therapeutic efficacy of pergolide in improving sleep and subjective measures of well-being in patients with(More)
Restless legs syndrome is one of the most common neurological disorders, with a prevalence of 2% to 9% in the elderly population. Sensory and motor symptoms of the legs and an urge to move that occur at rest may lead to severe sleep disturbances and are part of the syndrome. Typical history and normal neurological examination lead to the clinical diagnosis.(More)
An open follow-up of a controlled study in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) shows that the beneficial effect of pergolide on RLS symptoms persists throughout at least 1 year. Twenty-two patients of 28 (78.6%) continued to take pergolide. Polysomnographic measurements showed a persistent improvement of PLM index, PLMS arousal index, total sleep(More)
We report transmission of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in July 2008 through nonpasteurized goat milk to 6 humans and 4 domestic pigs in an alpine pasture 1,500 m above sea level. This outbreak indicates the emergence of ticks and TBEV at increasing altitudes in central Europe and the efficiency of oral transmission of TBEV.
Six patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) reporting unusually fast or sudden onset of sleep under the addition of dopamine agonists to a previous levodopa-containing therapy were examined using a sleep-wake diary, the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), polysomnography, multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT), a standardized vigilance test, and driving simulation.(More)
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a substantial public health problem in many parts of Europe and Asia. To assess the effect of increasing TBE vaccination coverage in Austria, we compared incidence rates over 40 years for highly TBE-endemic countries of central Europe (Czech Republic, Slovenia, and Austria). For all 3 countries we found extensive annual and(More)
The flavivirus membrane fusion machinery, like that of many other enveloped viruses, is triggered by the acidic pH in endosomes after virus uptake by receptor-mediated endocytosis. It has been hypothesized that conserved histidines in the class II fusion protein E of these viruses function as molecular switches and, by their protonation, control the fusion(More)
Viral membrane fusion proceeds through a sequence of steps that are driven by triggered conformational changes of viral envelope glycoproteins, so-called fusion proteins. Although high-resolution structural snapshots of viral fusion proteins in their prefusion and postfusion conformations are available, it has been difficult to define intermediate(More)
The entire genomic sequences of two strains (Hypr and 263) of the flavivirus tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus differing in virulence from the prototypic strain Neudoerfl were determined. Strain Hypr is a human isolate of TBE virus with a high laboratory passage history which exhibits a significantly higher neuro-invasiveness in mice compared to the(More)