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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Ischemic stroke leads to significant morbidity and mortality in the Western world. Early reperfusion strategies remain the treatment of choice but can initiate and augment an inflammatory response causing secondary brain damage. The understanding of postischemic inflammation is very limited. The objectives of this study were to define(More)
Myelin-associated inhibition of axonal regrowth after injury is considered one important factor that contributes to regeneration failure in the adult central nervous system (CNS). Blocking strategies targeting this pathway have been successfully applied in several nerve injury models, including experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), suggesting(More)
In multiple sclerosis, an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS), axonal and neuronal loss are major causes for irreversible neurological disability. However, which molecules contribute to axonal and neuronal injury under inflammatory conditions remains largely unknown. Here we show that the transient receptor potential melastatin 4(More)
Neurons are postmitotic and thus irreplaceable cells of the central nervous system (CNS). Accordingly, CNS inflammation with resulting neuronal damage can have devastating consequences. We investigated molecular mediators and structural consequences of CD8(+) T lymphocyte (CTL) attack on neurons in vivo. In a viral encephalitis model in mice, disease(More)
BACKGROUND Nogo-66 receptor NgR1 and its structural homologue NgR2 are binding proteins for a number of myelin-associated inhibitory factors. After neuronal injury, these inhibitory factors are responsible for preventing axonal outgrowth via their interactions with NgR1 and NgR2 expressed on neurons. In vitro, cells expressing NgR1/2 are inhibited from(More)
Tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM) persist at sites of prior infection and have been shown to enhance pathogen clearance by recruiting circulating immune cells and providing bystander activation. Here, we characterize the functioning of brain-resident memory T cells (bTRM) in an animal model of viral infection. bTRM were subject to spontaneous homeostatic(More)
Th17 cells are involved in the defense against bacteria and fungi and play a prominent role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, but research on human Th17 cells is hindered due to the lack of a surface marker. In this study, we report that a subset of human and mouse CD4(+) T cells as well as human Th17 T cell clones express IL-17A on their surface(More)
The 2-lysophosphatidylcholine analog edelfosine induces apoptosis in highly proliferating cells, e.g. activated immune cells. We examined mechanisms of action of edelfosine on immune functions in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a well-accepted animal model for multiple sclerosis. We observed activated caspase-3 expression in lymphoid organs and(More)
Recent association studies have linked numerous genetic variants with an increased risk for multiple sclerosis, although their functional relevance remains largely unknown. Here we investigated phenotypical and functional consequences of a genetic variant in the CD226 gene that, among other autoimmune diseases, predisposes to multiple sclerosis.(More)