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Endothelial-Monocyte-Activating Polypeptide II (EMAP II) is a proinflammatory cytokine and chemoattractant of macrophages. In order to investigate the role of EMAP II in autoimmune lesions of the rat nervous system, we have used a synthetic gene to express EMAP II in E. coli and have produced monoclonal antibodies against EMAP II. Monoclonal antibodies are(More)
Endothelial-monocyte activating polypeptide II (EMAP II) and allograft-inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) are two proteins produced by activated monocytes and microglial cells. We now report expression of these factors during experimental therapy of rat neuroautoimmune diseases. Comparative analysis of two therapeutic strategies, treatment with high doses of(More)
Human traumatic brain injury (TBI) is ideally suited for investigation of the kinetics of human microglial cell activation as the onset of lesion formation is precisely defined. The present study provides evidence of a distinct delay in macrophage/microglia response following TBI. Eighteen brains of patients who had survived TBI for 1 h to 6 months were(More)
Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) is a Ca2+ binding peptide expressed predominantly by activated monocytes. In order to investigate the role of AIF-1 in autoimmune lesions of the rat nervous system, we have used a synthetic gene to express AIF-1 in E. coli and have produced monoclonal antibodies against AIF-1. AIF-1 was localized to(More)
The enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is reducing heme to the gaseous mediator carbon monoxide, to iron and the antioxidant biliverdin. The inducible expression of HO-1 is considered a protective cellular mechanism against reactive oxygen intermediates. Further, carbon monoxide (CO) is a regulator of cGMP synthesis, of NO-synthetases and cyclooxygenases,(More)
Microglial cells are regulators of tissue homeostasis in the adult central nervous system and readily participate in pathological processes, orchestrating tissue remodeling. Cytokines produced by microglial cells are markers of cell activation and contribute to reactive processes. In this paper, we have studied the expression of IL-16 (leukocyte(More)
The proliferation, migration and differentiation of dentate gyrus stem and precursor cells have aroused keen interest. Neogenin and RGMb are expressed in non-overlapping compartments of the developing dentate gyrus. While Neogenin is expressed in migrating and proliferating dentate precursors, RGMb is localized in structures bordering the developing(More)
Inflammatory cellular responses to brain injury are promoted by proinflammatory messengers. Cyclooxygenases (prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthases [PGH]) are key enzymes in the conversion of arachidonic acid into prostanoids, which mediate immunomodulation, mitogenesis, apoptosis, blood flow, secondary injury (lipid peroxygenation), and inflammation. Here,(More)
BACKGROUND Endostatin is a potent inhibitor of endothelial cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and tumor growth. Its occurrence and localization has not yet been examined in human brain tumors. The authors report the production of a monoclonal antibody and detection of endostatin in rat and human gliomas by immunohistochemistry. METHODS The authors analyzed(More)
Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) is a Ca2+-binding peptide that constitutes a potential modulator of macrophage activation and function during the immune response of the brain. Peptides termed microglia response factor-1 or ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule-1 have been reported to be identical with AIF-1. We have investigated the expression of(More)