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Endothelial-Monocyte-Activating Polypeptide II (EMAP II) is a proinflammatory cytokine and chemoattractant of macrophages. In order to investigate the role of EMAP II in autoimmune lesions of the rat nervous system, we have used a synthetic gene to express EMAP II in E. coli and have produced monoclonal antibodies against EMAP II. Monoclonal antibodies are(More)
Endothelial-monocyte activating polypeptide II (EMAP II) and allograft-inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) are two proteins produced by activated monocytes and microglial cells. We now report expression of these factors during experimental therapy of rat neuroautoimmune diseases. Comparative analysis of two therapeutic strategies, treatment with high doses of(More)
BACKGROUND Endostatin is a potent inhibitor of endothelial cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and tumor growth. Its occurrence and localization has not yet been examined in human brain tumors. The authors report the production of a monoclonal antibody and detection of endostatin in rat and human gliomas by immunohistochemistry. METHODS The authors analyzed(More)
Certain DNA sequences containing motifs of unmethylated CpG nucleotides are immunostimulatory and might contribute to the development of inflammatory lesions after infections. CpG motifs might further contribute to side effects of oligonucleotide-based therapeutic approaches. Here we have analyzed the effects of intracranial injections of synthetic CpG(More)
The leukocyte chemotactic factor (LCF) is a proinflammatory cytokine and natural soluble ligand to the human CD4 molecule. LCF is produced by CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and is considered essential to the influx of CD4+ T lymphocytes and macrophages into an inflammatory lesion. In order to investigate the role of LCF in the multiple sclerosis (MS) lesion,(More)
The proliferation, migration and differentiation of dentate gyrus stem and precursor cells have aroused keen interest. Neogenin and RGMb are expressed in non-overlapping compartments of the developing dentate gyrus. While Neogenin is expressed in migrating and proliferating dentate precursors, RGMb is localized in structures bordering the developing(More)
Inflammatory cellular responses to brain injury are promoted by proinflammatory messengers. Cyclooxygenases (prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthases [PGH]) are key enzymes in the conversion of arachidonic acid into prostanoids, which mediate immunomodulation, mitogenesis, apoptosis, blood flow, secondary injury (lipid peroxygenation), and inflammation. Here,(More)
Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) is a Ca2+ binding peptide expressed predominantly by activated monocytes. In order to investigate the role of AIF-1 in autoimmune lesions of the rat nervous system, we have used a synthetic gene to express AIF-1 in E. coli and have produced monoclonal antibodies against AIF-1. AIF-1 was localized to(More)
Human traumatic brain injury (TBI) is ideally suited for investigation of the kinetics of human microglial cell activation as the onset of lesion formation is precisely defined. The present study provides evidence of a distinct delay in macrophage/microglia response following TBI. Eighteen brains of patients who had survived TBI for 1 h to 6 months were(More)
The enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is reducing heme to the gaseous mediator carbon monoxide, to iron and the antioxidant biliverdin. The inducible expression of HO-1 is considered a protective cellular mechanism against reactive oxygen intermediates. Further, carbon monoxide (CO) is a regulator of cGMP synthesis, of NO-synthetases and cyclooxygenases,(More)