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Prokaryotic biofilms that predominate in a diverse range of ecosystems are often composed of highly structured multispecies communities. Within these communities metabolic activities are integrated, and developmental sequences, not unlike those of multicellular organisms, can be detected. These structural adaptations and interrelationships are made possible(More)
Dispersion is a process used by bacteria to successfully transit from a biofilm to a planktonic growth state and to spawn novel communities in new locales. Alterations in bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) levels have been shown to be associated with biofilm dispersal in a number of different bacteria. The signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO) is(More)
Complementary approaches were employed to characterize transitional episodes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm development using direct observation and whole-cell protein analysis. Microscopy and in situ reporter gene analysis were used to directly observe changes in biofilm physiology and to act as signposts to standardize protein collection for(More)
Multiple environmental cues have been shown to trigger biofilm detachment, the transition from surface-attached, highly organized communities known as biofilms to the motile lifestyle. The goal of this study was to identify a gene product involved in sensing environmental cues that trigger biofilm dispersion in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. To do so, we focused(More)
The formation of complex bacterial communities known as biofilms begins with the interaction of planktonic cells with a surface. A switch between planktonic and sessile growth is believed to result in a phenotypic change in bacteria. In this study, a global analysis of physiological changes of the plant saprophyte Pseudomonas putida following 6 h of(More)
The processes associated with early events in biofilm formation have become a major research focus over the past several years. Events associated with dispersion of cells from late stage biofilms have, however, received little attention. We demonstrate here that dispersal of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 from biofilms is inducible by a sudden increase in(More)
AlgR controls numerous virulence factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, including alginate, hydrogen cyanide production, and type IV pilus-mediated twitching motility. In this study, the role of AlgR in biofilms was examined in continuous-flow and static biofilm assays. Strain PSL317 (DeltaalgR) produced one-third the biofilm biomass of wild-type strain PAO1.(More)
Biofilm dispersion by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in response to environmental cues is dependent on the cytoplasmic BdlA protein harboring two sensory PAS domains and a chemoreceptor domain, TarH. The closest known and previously characterized BdlA homolog is the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-binding Aer, the redox potential sensor and aerotaxis transducer(More)
Dispersion enables biofilm bacteria to transit from the biofilm to the planktonic growth state and to spawn novel communities in new locales. Although the chemotaxis protein BdlA plays a role in the dispersion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in response to environmental cues, little is known about regulation of BdlA activity or how BdlA modulates the(More)
Streptococcus pneumoniae is among the most common pathogens associated with chronic otitis media with effusion, which has been hypothesized to be a biofilm disease. S. pneumoniae has been shown to form biofilms, however, little is known about the developmental process, the architecture, and the changes that occur upon biofilm development. In the current(More)