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Extracellular signals often result in simultaneous activation of both the Raf-MEK-ERK and PI3K-Akt pathways (where ERK is extracellular-regulated kinase, MEK is mitogen-activated protein kinase or ERK kinase, and PI3K is phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase). However, these two signaling pathways were shown to exert opposing effects on muscle cell hypertrophy.(More)
Activation of the protein kinase Raf can lead to opposing cellular responses such as proliferation, growth arrest, apoptosis, or differentiation. Akt (protein kinase B), a member of a different signaling pathway that also regulates these responses, interacted with Raf and phosphorylated this protein at a highly conserved serine residue in its regulatory(More)
We have recently shown that the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathways can cross-talk in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. High Raf activity induces growth arrest and differentiation in these cells, whereas high PI3K/Akt activity correlates with cell survival and proliferation. Here we show that the Raf-Akt(More)
Transient macromolecular complexes are often formed by protein-protein interaction domains (e.g. PDZ, SH2, SH3, WW) which recognize linear sequence motifs with in vitro affinities typically in the micromolar range. The analysis of the resulting interaction networks requires a quantification of domain specificity and selectivity towards all possible ligands(More)
The serine/threonine protein kinase c-Raf-1 interacts with a number of cellular proteins including 14-3-3 isoforms which may be regulators or substrates of c-Raf-1 in signal transduction pathways. In vivo and in vitro binding analyses of c-Raf-1 and mutant proteins with 14-3-3 zeta indicate bivalent binding of 14-3-3 zeta to the amino terminus as well as to(More)
Retroviruses code for a virus-specific protease which is essential for polyprotein processing and viral infectivity. The human immune deficiency virus-1 protease is an aspartic protease of 9 kDa which was synthesized by recombinant DNA technology and arises by autocatalytic processing from a polyprotein precursor which has recently been demonstrated by use(More)
PDZ domains are a recently characterized protein-recognition module. In most cases, PDZ domains bind to the C-terminal end of target proteins and are thought thereby to link these target proteins into functional signaling networks. We report the isolation of artificial PDZ domains selected via a mutagenesis screen in vivo, each recognizing a different(More)
14-3-3 proteins mediate interactions between proteins involved in signal transduction and cell cycle regulation. Phosphorylation of target proteins as well as 14-3-3 are important for protein-protein interactions. Here, we describe the purification of a protein kinase from porcine brain that phosphorylates 14-3-3 zeta on Thr-233. This protein kinase has(More)
In mammals the interferon (IFN) system is a central innate antiviral defence mechanism, while the involvement of RNA interference (RNAi) in antiviral response against RNA viruses is uncertain. Here, we tested whether RNAi is involved in the antiviral response in mammalian cells. To investigate the role of RNAi in influenza A virus-infected cells in the(More)