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The dimensions of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) were measured in fluorescein angiograms from 36 diabetic patients and 20 nondiabetic controls. The median values for longest diameter, mean diameter, and circumference were significantly greater in the diabetic group than in the control group. Longest diameters greater than 1.0 mm were found almost(More)
Previously, we have demonstrated that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) injected into the nucleus accumbens attenuates the potentiating effects of d-amphetamine on responding for conditioned reward (CR). The present studies examined the 5-HT receptor involved in this effect by investigating the effects of 5-HT agonists with differing affinities for 5-HT1 and 5-HT2(More)
Behavioural and neurochemical evidence indicates a facilitatory effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), acting via 5-HT1B receptors, on dopamine (DA) systems. To explore this interaction further, these experiments examined the effects of the 5-HT1A/1B agonist RU-24969 on behaviours known to involve the mesolimbic DA system. These behaviours were locomotor(More)
RATIONALE Responding for conditioned reinforcement is increased by the dopamine releasing agent amphetamine, but reduced by drugs that enhance serotonin (5-HT) function. The amphetamine derivative 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy) releases both monoamines. OBJECTIVES The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effects of MDMA on(More)
The oscillatory potential (OP) amplitudes of the electroretinogram (ERG) were determined in a group of 85 diabetic patients entering the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS). The rate of progression among nonphotocoagulated eyes to the Diabetic Retinopathy Study high-risk characteristics (DRS-HRC) during a ten- to 40-month follow-up period was(More)
Brain serotonin interacts with dopamine function in a complex fashion. Previous work from our laboratory showed that activation of 5-HT(1B) receptors within the nucleus accumbens attenuates the ability of amphetamine to increase responding for conditioned reinforcement. The primary purpose of these experiments was to determine the impact of 5-HT receptor(More)
RATIONALE Previously, we have shown that increasing 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) activity attenuates responding for conditioned reward (CR), and the response potentiating effect of d-amphetamine on this behaviour. OBJECTIVES The present experiments examined the effects of reducing 5-HT function on responding for CR. METHODS In experiment 1, thirsty rats(More)
A 4.3-kbp portion of the genome from the Chlorella virus, PBCV-1, has been cloned and sequenced. Minimally, five open reading frames (ORFs) were identified on this fragment. Transcriptional analysis indicates that each ORF encodes complex patterns of RNA. The total length of transcribed RNA exceeds that of the ORF indicating either post-transcriptional(More)
OBJECTIVES These experiments investigated the effects of selective serotonin (5-HT) depletion on intravenous self-administration of d-amphetamine. METHODS Depletion of brain 5-HT levels was induced by injecting the serotonergic neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5, 7-DHT) into the dorsal and median raphe nuclei. Rats were then trained to self-administer(More)
The results of Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue, visual acuity, and visual field testing were compared with the severity of retinopathy in a group of 90 diabetic patients. The patients showed significantly higher than expected Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue scores, with a tritanlike axis, compared with published age norms for nondiabetic individuals. The magnitude of(More)