Karin L. Klingman

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BACKGROUND The use of either efavirenz or lopinavir-ritonavir plus two nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) is recommended for initial therapy for patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, but which of the two regimens has greater efficacy is not known. The alternative regimen of lopinavir-ritonavir plus efavirenz(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES The etiologic role of bacterial pathogens isolated from sputum culture in 40 to 50% of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB) is controversial. If bacterial pathogens cause these AECB, they should be associated with greater neutrophilic airway inflammation than pathogen-negative exacerbations. DESIGN This hypothesis was tested(More)
BACKGROUND Antiretroviral regimens with simplified dosing and better safety are needed to maximize the efficiency of antiretroviral delivery in resource-limited settings. We investigated the efficacy and safety of antiretroviral regimens with once-daily compared to twice-daily dosing in diverse areas of the world. METHODS AND FINDINGS 1,571 HIV-1-infected(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE The impact of maternal antiretrovirals (ARVs) during pregnancy, labor, and postpartum on infant outcomes is unclear. METHODS Infants born to HIV-infected mothers in ARV studies were followed for 18 months. RESULTS Between June 2006 and December 2008, 236 infants enrolled from Africa (n = 36), India (n = 47), Thailand (n = 152),(More)
We used competitive panning to select a panel of 10 different human antibodies from a large semisynthetic phage display library that distinguish between serum complement-resistant and complement-sensitive strains of the gram-negative diplococcus Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis. Western blotting analyses and inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays(More)
BACKGROUND Nevirapine (NVP) resistance emerges in up to 70% of women exposed to single-dose (sd) NVP for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS HIV-infected pregnant women were randomized to receive sdNVP and either zidovudine/lamivudine (3TC), tenofovir/emtricitabine (FTC), or lopinavir/ritonavir for(More)
BACKGROUND There is a need to prevent or minimize bone loss associated with antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation. We compared maraviroc (MVC)- to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-containing ART. METHODS This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. ART-naive subjects with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA load (viral load [VL]) >1000(More)
BACKGROUND The AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) A5230 study evaluated lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) monotherapy following virologic failure (VF) on first-line human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) regimens in Africa and Asia. METHODS Eligible subjects had received first-line regimens for at least 6 months and had plasma HIV-1 RNA levels 1000-200 000(More)
BACKGROUND The effects of antiretroviral therapy on risk of severe bacterial infections in people with high CD4 cell counts have not been well described. In this study, we aimed to quantify the effects of immediate versus deferred ART on the risk of severe bacterial infection in people with high CD4 cell counts in a preplanned analysis of the START trial.(More)
BACKGROUND Intrapartum single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP) reduces HIV-1 perinatal transmission but selects NVP resistance among mothers and infants. We evaluated the frequency of antiretroviral resistance among infants with intrauterine HIV-1 infection exposed to sdNVP and maternal antenatal or breastfeeding antiretroviral therapy. METHODS This analysis(More)
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