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Synaptic-vesicle exocytosis is mediated by the vesicular Ca(2+) sensor synaptotagmin-1. Synaptotagmin-1 interacts with the SNARE protein syntaxin-1A and acidic phospholipids such as phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). However, it is unclear how these interactions contribute to triggering membrane fusion. Using PC12 cells from Rattus norvegicus and(More)
The hydrolytic endoribonuclease RNase E, which is widely distributed in bacteria and plants, plays key roles in mRNA degradation and RNA processing in Escherichia coli. The enzymatic activity of RNase E is contained within the conserved amino-terminal half of the 118 kDa protein, and the carboxy-terminal half organizes the RNA degradosome, a multi-enzyme(More)
The crystal structure of human retinitis pigmentosa 2 protein (RP2) was solved to 2.1 angstroms resolution. It consists of an N-terminal beta helix and a C-terminal ferredoxin-like alpha/beta domain. RP2 is functionally and structurally related to the tubulin-specific chaperone cofactor C. Seven of nine known RP2 missense mutations identified in patients(More)
The X-ray crystallographic analysis of redox-active systems may be complicated by photoreduction. Although radiolytic reduction by the probing X-ray beam may be exploited to generate otherwise short-lived reaction intermediates of metalloproteins, it is generally an undesired feature. Here, the X-ray-induced reduction of the three heme proteins myoglobin,(More)
The vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) is a key regulator of actin dynamics. We have determined the 1.3-A resolution crystal structure of the 45-residue-long tetramerization domain (TD) from human VASP. This domain forms a right-handed alpha-helical coiled-coil structure with a similar degree of supercoiling as found in the widespread left-handed(More)
Organ cultures from neonatal rabbit retinae grew well over periods of up to 2 weeks in vitro. Proliferation in vitro declined in parallel with the decline seen in vivo, although the rate of proliferation in the explants was slightly reduced. The proliferation of progenitor cells in vitro produced the same cell types produced postnatally in vivo. Postnatally(More)
β-propellers that bind polyphosphoinositides (PROPPINs), a eukaryotic WD-40 motif-containing protein family, bind via their predicted β-propeller fold the polyphosphoinositides PtdIns3P and PtdIns(3,5)P(2) using a conserved FRRG motif. PROPPINs play a key role in macroautophagy in addition to other functions. We present the 3.0-Å crystal structure of(More)
The mechanisms leading to rapid invasive growth of malignant gliomas are poorly understood. Expression of the hyaluronic acid (HA) receptor CD44 and adhesion to HA are involved in invasive properties. Our previous studies have shown that malignant glioma cells are able to adhere to extracellular HA. Here we investigated expression of the hyaluronic acid(More)
Small GTPases of the Rab family not only regulate target recognition in membrane traffic but also control other cellular functions such as cytoskeletal transport and autophagy. Here we show that Rab26 is specifically associated with clusters of synaptic vesicles in neurites. Overexpression of active but not of GDP-preferring Rab26 enhances vesicle(More)
The IcsA (intracellular spread gene A) autotransporter from Shigella flexneri is a key virulence factor. We identified a stable fragment comprising residues 591 to 758, which corresponds to the autochaperone region of the IcsA passenger domain. We showed that thermal unfolding of the autochaperone region is reversible and determined its crystal structure at(More)