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Mammalian X and Y chromosomes evolved from an autosomal pair; the X retained and the Y gradually lost most ancestral genes. In females, one X chromosome is silenced by X inactivation, a process that is often assumed to have evolved on a broadly regional or chromosomal basis. Here we propose that genes or clusters common to both the X and Y chromosomes (X-Y(More)
Most eukaryotic chromosomes, akin to messy toolboxes, store jumbles of genes with diverse biological uses. The linkage of a gene to a particular chromosome therefore rarely hints strongly at that gene's function. One striking exception to this pattern of gene distribution is the human Y chromosome. Far from being random and diverse, known human Y-chromosome(More)
The human ZFX, human ZFY, and mouse Zfx genes have CpG islands near their 5; ends. These islands are typical in that they span about 1.5 kb, contain transcription initiation sites, and encompass some 5' untranslated exons and introns. However, comparitive nucleotide sequencing of these human and mouse islands provided evidence of evolutionary conservation(More)
In order to improve the early detection and diagnosis of cancer, give more accurate prognoses, stratify individuals by risk, predict response to treatment, and help the transition of basic research into clinical application, biomarkers are needed that accurately represent or predict clinical outcomes. To be useful in trials for chemopreventive agent(More)
ontinuing to stretch the bounds of what the extracellular matrix is known to do, Swindle et al. (page 459) show that tenascin-C, a matrix protein, can signal through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The authors suggest that the distinction between receptor interactions that lead to signaling and those that anchor the cell in the environment may(More)
A dystroglycan ligand in the brain ystroglycans are present on the surfaces of cells throughout the body, anchoring cells in the matrix that surrounds them. This function is conspicuously important for muscle cells. Defects in the protein dystrophin, which is D connected to dystroglycan, destabilize the connection of muscle cells to their matrix and cause(More)
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