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Mammalian X and Y chromosomes evolved from an autosomal pair; the X retained and the Y gradually lost most ancestral genes. In females, one X chromosome is silenced by X inactivation, a process that is often assumed to have evolved on a broadly regional or chromosomal basis. Here we propose that genes or clusters common to both the X and Y chromosomes (X-Y(More)
The human ZFX, human ZFY, and mouse Zfx genes have CpG islands near their 5; ends. These islands are typical in that they span about 1.5 kb, contain transcription initiation sites, and encompass some 5' untranslated exons and introns. However, comparitive nucleotide sequencing of these human and mouse islands provided evidence of evolutionary conservation(More)
A dystroglycan ligand in the brain ystroglycans are present on the surfaces of cells throughout the body, anchoring cells in the matrix that surrounds them. This function is conspicuously important for muscle cells. Defects in the protein dystrophin, which is D connected to dystroglycan, destabilize the connection of muscle cells to their matrix and cause(More)
ontinuing to stretch the bounds of what the extracellular matrix is known to do, Swindle et al. (page 459) show that tenascin-C, a matrix protein, can signal through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The authors suggest that the distinction between receptor interactions that lead to signaling and those that anchor the cell in the environment may(More)
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