Karin Hammer

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We constructed a library of synthetic promoters for Lactococcus lactis in which the known consensus sequences were kept constant while the sequences of the separating spacers were randomized. The library consists of 38 promoters which differ in strength from 0.3 up to more than 2,000 relative units, the latter among the strongest promoters known for this(More)
A minimal growth medium containing glucose, acetate, vitamins, and eight amino acids allowed for growth of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, with a specific growth rate in batch culture of mu = 0.3 h. With 19 amino acids added, the growth rate increased to mu = 0.7 h and the exponential growth phase proceeded until high cell concentrations were reached. We(More)
The bacterium Lactococcus lactis has become a model organism in studies of growth physiology and membrane transport, as a result of its simple fermentative metabolism. It is also used as a model for studying the importance of specific genes and functions during life in excess nutrients, by comparison of prototrophic wild-type strains and auxotrophic(More)
In this article, we review some of the expression systems that are available for Metabolic Control Analysis and Metabolic Engineering, and examine their advantages and disadvantages in different contexts. In a recent approach, artificial promoters for modulating gene expression in micro-organisms were constructed using synthetic degenerated(More)
Two mutant strains of Lactococcus lactis in which the promoter of the las operon, harboring pfk, pyk, and ldh, were replaced by synthetic promoters were constructed. These las mutants had an approximately twofold decrease in the activity of phosphofructokinase, whereas the activities of pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase remained closer to the(More)
The induction of the heat shock response in Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strain MG1363 was analysed at the RNA level using a novel RNA isolation procedure to prevent degradation. Cloning of the dnaJ and groEL homologues was carried out. Northern blot analysis showed a similar induction pattern for dnaK, dnaJ and groELS after transfer from 30 degrees C(More)
The site-specific recombination system of temperate lactococcal bacteriophage TP901-1 is unusual in several respects. First, the integrase belongs to the family of extended resolvases rather than to the lambda integrase family and second, in the presence of this integrase, a 56 bp attP fragment is sufficient for efficient recombination with the chromosomal(More)
Most metabolic reactions are connected through either their utilization of nucleotides or their utilization of nucleotides or their regulation by these metabolites. In this review the biosynthetic pathways for pyrimidine and purine metabolism in lactic acid bacteria are described including the interconversion pathways, the formation of deoxyribonucleotides(More)
In this work, the phage-encoded proteins involved in site-specific excision of the prophage genome of the temperate lactococcal bacteriophage TP901-1 were identified. The phage integrase is required for the process, and a low but significant frequency of excision is observed when the integrase is the only phage protein present. However, 100% excision is(More)
Transcriptional analysis by Northern blotting identified clusters of early, middle and late transcribed regions of the temperate lactococcal bacteriophage TP901-1 during one-step growth experiments. The latent period was found to be 65 min and the burst size 40 +/- 10. The eight early transcripts, all mapping in a 13 kb region adjacent to the attachment(More)