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A minimal growth medium containing glucose, acetate, vitamins, and eight amino acids allowed for growth of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, with a specific growth rate in batch culture of mu = 0.3 h. With 19 amino acids added, the growth rate increased to mu = 0.7 h and the exponential growth phase proceeded until high cell concentrations were reached. We(More)
We constructed a library of synthetic promoters for Lactococcus lactis in which the known consensus sequences were kept constant while the sequences of the separating spacers were randomized. The library consists of 38 promoters which differ in strength from 0.3 up to more than 2,000 relative units, the latter among the strongest promoters known for this(More)
Most metabolic reactions are connected through either their utilization of nucleotides or their utilization of nucleotides or their regulation by these metabolites. In this review the biosynthetic pathways for pyrimidine and purine metabolism in lactic acid bacteria are described including the interconversion pathways, the formation of deoxyribonucleotides(More)
The bacterium Lactococcus lactis has become a model organism in studies of growth physiology and membrane transport, as a result of its simple fermentative metabolism. It is also used as a model for studying the importance of specific genes and functions during life in excess nutrients, by comparison of prototrophic wild-type strains and auxotrophic(More)
In this article, we review some of the expression systems that are available for Metabolic Control Analysis and Metabolic Engineering, and examine their advantages and disadvantages in different contexts. In a recent approach, artificial promoters for modulating gene expression in micro-organisms were constructed using synthetic degenerated(More)
A functional analysis of open reading frame 4 (ORF4) and ORF5 from the temperate lactococcal phage TP901-1 was performed by mutant and deletion analysis combined with transcriptional studies of the early phage promoters p(R) and p(L). ORF4 (180 amino acids) was identified as a phage repressor necessary for repression of both promoters. Furthermore, the(More)
Two mutant strains of Lactococcus lactis in which the promoter of the las operon, harboring pfk, pyk, and ldh, were replaced by synthetic promoters were constructed. These las mutants had an approximately twofold decrease in the activity of phosphofructokinase, whereas the activities of pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase remained closer to the(More)
The integration system of the temperate lactococcal phage TP901-1 was characterized in Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris LM0230 and MG1363 with the use of deletion derivatives of the integration vector pBC143 (B. Christiansen, M. G. Johnsen, E. Stenby, F. K. Vogensen, and K. Hammer, J. Bacteriol. 176:1069-1076, 1994). The phage-encoded elements necessary(More)
Previously we showed that only one phage-expressed protein (Orf1), a 425-bp region upstream of the orf1 gene (presumably encoding a promoter), and the attP region are necessary and also sufficient for integration of the bacteriophage TP901-1 genome into the chromosome of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris (B. Christiansen, L. Brondsted, F. K. Vogensen, and(More)
Two major structural proteins, MHP (major head protein) and MTP (major tail protein), from the lactococcal temperate phage TP901-1 were sequenced at their amino acid termini, and derived degenerate oligonucleotides were used to locate the corresponding genes in the phage genome. This genomic region was sequenced. The sequence characterized includes a total(More)