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BACKGROUND Arsenic (As) occurs as monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in humans, and the methylation pattern demonstrates large interindividual differences. The fraction of urinary MMA is a marker for susceptibility to As-related diseases. OBJECTIVES We evaluated the impact of polymorphisms in five methyltransferase genes on As(More)
The susceptibility to arsenic-induced diseases differs greatly between individuals, possibly due to interindividual variations in As metabolism that affect retention and distribution of toxic metabolites. To elucidate the role of genetic factors in As metabolism, we studied how polymorphisms in six genes affected the urinary metabolite pattern in a group of(More)
INTRODUCTION A higher prevalence of individuals affected by Parkinsonism was found in Valcamonica, Italy. This may be related to ferro-alloy smelters in the area, releasing manganese (Mn) in the air, soil and water for about a century. There exists individual susceptibility for Mn neurotoxicity. AIM To analyse how polymorphism in genes regulating Mn(More)
BACKGROUND Cadmium, a common food pollutant, alters DNA methylation in vitro. Epigenetic effects might therefore partly explain cadmium's toxicity, including its carcinogenicity; however, human data on epigenetic effects are lacking. OBJECTIVE We evaluated the effects of dietary cadmium exposure on DNA methylation, considering other environmental(More)
The glutathione S-transferase P1 genotype (GSTP1) is involved in the inactivation of cigarette smoke carcinogens, and sequence variation in the gene may alter bladder cancer susceptibility. To examine the association between GSTP1Ile 105Val and bladder cancer, the authors undertook a meta- and pooled analysis. Summary crude and adjusted odds ratios and(More)
Arsenic is a very potent toxicant. One major susceptibility factor for arsenic-related toxicity is the efficiency of arsenic metabolism. The efficiency, in turn, is associated with non-coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the arsenic methyltransferase AS3MT on chromosome 10q24. However, the mechanism of action for these SNPs is not yet(More)
Prenatal exposure to the highly toxic and common pollutant cadmium has been associated with adverse effects on child health and development. However, the underlying biological mechanisms of cadmium toxicity remain partially unsolved. Epigenetic disruption due to early cadmium exposure has gained attention as a plausible mode of action, since epigenetic(More)
Lead has negative effect on cognitive functions in children. However, individuals differ in susceptibility. One possible explanation is a genetic predisposition. Polymorphisms in the δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) genes may modify lead metabolism and neurotoxicity, but information regarding the central nervous(More)
BACKGROUND Exposure to toxic methylmercury (MeHg) through fish consumption is a large problem worldwide, and it has led to governmental recommendations of reduced fish consumption and blacklisting of mercury-contaminated fish. The elimination kinetics of MeHg varies greatly among individuals. Knowledge about the reasons for such variation is of importance(More)
Dietary cadmium exposure was recently found to alter DNA methylation in adults, but data on effects early in life are lacking. Our objective was to evaluate associations between prenatal cadmium exposure, DNA methylation and birth weight. In total 127 mother-child pairs from rural Bangladesh were studied. For comparison, we included 56 children at 4.5 y.(More)