Karim Khader

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BACKGROUND Antibiotics are essential to effectively treat many hospitalized patients. However, when antibiotics are prescribed incorrectly, they offer little benefit to patients and potentially expose them to risks for complications, including Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and antibiotic-resistant infections. Information is needed on the frequency(More)
BACKGROUND Estimates of the excess length of stay (LOS) attributable to healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in which total LOS of patients with and without HAIs are biased because of failure to account for the timing of infection. Alternate methods that appropriately treat HAI as a time-varying exposure are multistate models and cohort studies, which(More)
BACKGROUND Clostridium difficile is one of the most common and important nosocomial pathogens, causing severe gastrointestinal disease in hospitalized patients. Although "bundled" interventions have been proposed and promoted, optimal control strategies remain unknown. METHODS We designed an agent-based computer simulation of nosocomial C. difficile(More)
While the ongoing Ebola outbreak continues in the West Africa countries of Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia, health officials elsewhere prepare for new introductions of Ebola from infected evacuees or travelers. We analyzed transmission data from patients (i.e., evacuees, international travelers, and those with locally acquired illness) in countries other(More)
BACKGROUND Information about the health and economic impact of infections caused by vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) can inform investments in infection prevention and development of novel therapeutics. OBJECTIVE To systematically review the incidence of VRE infection in the United States and the clinical and economic outcomes. METHODS We searched(More)
BACKGROUND Our objective was to estimate the per-infection and cumulative mortality and cost burden of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in the United States using data from published studies. METHODS We identified studies that estimated the excess cost, length of stay (LOS), or mortality attributable to MDR(More)
We describe two novel Markov chain Monte Carlo approaches to computing estimates of parameters concerned with healthcare-associated infections. The first approach frames the discrete time, patient level, hospital transmission model as a Bayesian network, and exploits this framework to improve greatly on the computational efficiency of estimation compared(More)
Methods We searched PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE and others for multicenter studies published in the US between 20002014 that evaluated CDI outcomes or costs. Studies were included in the economic analysis if they measured postinfection costs, post-infection length of stay (LOS), or propensity score-matched CDI patients to non-CDI controls. We also included(More)
BACKGROUND Standard estimates of the impact of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) on inpatient lengths of stay (LOS) may overstate inpatient care costs attributable to CDI. In this study, we used multistate modeling (MSM) of CDI timing to reduce bias in estimates of excess LOS. METHODS A retrospective cohort study of all hospitalizations at any of 120(More)