Karim J Brandt

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Mechanisms of action as well as cellular targets of glatiramer acetate (GA) in multiple sclerosis (MS) are still not entirely understood. IL-1beta is present in CNS-infiltrating macrophages and microglial cells and is an important mediator of inflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE), the MS animal model. A natural inhibitor of IL-1beta,(More)
Imbalance in cytokine homeostasis plays an important part in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. We demonstrated that T cells might exert a pathological effect through direct cellular contact with human monocytes/macrophages, inducing a massive up-regulation of the prototypical(More)
The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disease associated with arterial or venous thrombosis and/or recurrent fetal loss and is caused by pathogenic antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLA). The plasma protein β2-glycoprotein 1 (β2GP1) has been identified as a major target of aPLA associated with APS. Cell activation by aPLA appears to be a major(More)
Glatiramer acetate (GA), an immunomodulator used in multiple sclerosis (MS) therapy, induces the production of secreted IL-1 receptor antagonist (sIL-1Ra), a natural inhibitor of IL-1β, in human monocytes, and in turn enhances sIL-1Ra circulating levels in MS patients. GA is a mixture of peptides with random Glu, Lys, Ala, and Tyr sequences of high polarity(More)
Localization of Toll-like receptors (TLR) in subcellular organelles is a major strategy to regulate innate immune responses. While TLR4, a cell-surface receptor, signals from both the plasma membrane and endosomal compartments, less is known about the functional role of endosomal trafficking upon TLR2 signaling. Here we show that the bacterial TLR2 ligands(More)
Selective pharmacological treatments targeting reperfusion injury produced modest protective effects and might be associated with immunosuppression. In order to identify novel and better-tolerated approaches, we focused on the neutralization of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand [RANKL], a cytokine recently shown to activate inflammatory(More)
IFN-β and sIL-1Ra play crucial roles in the regulation of innate immunity and inflammation. IFN-β, which is widely used to improve the course of relapsing, remitting multiple sclerosis, induces the production of sIL-1Ra in human monocytes through mechanisms that remain largely unknown. In this study, we identified PI3Kδ and MEK2 as key elements that control(More)
Endocannabinoids modulate atherogenesis by triggering different receptors. Recently, orphan G protein-coupled receptors (GPRs) were suggested to be activated by endocannabinoids, possibly regulating vasorelaxation. Here, we investigated whether GPR55 antagonism with CID16020046 would impact on atherosclerotic size and inflammation in two mouse models of(More)
Deregulated production of cytokines, including IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF plays an important role in chronic inflammation. Relevant to this condition, direct cellular contact with stimulated T cells is a potent inducer of cytokine production in human monocytes/macrophages. We previously demonstrated that PI3Ks regulate differential production of IL-1beta and(More)
BACKGROUND Direct cellular contact with stimulated T cells is a potent mechanism that induces cytokine production in human monocytes in the absence of an infectious agent. This mechanism is likely to be relevant to T cell-mediated inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Microparticles (MP) generated by stimulated T cells(More)