Learn More
Exercise, obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with elevated plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a hormone that induces insulin secretion. Here we show that administration of IL-6 or elevated IL-6 concentrations in response to exercise stimulate GLP-1 secretion from intestinal L cells and pancreatic alpha(More)
Most lifestyle-related chronic diseases are characterized by low-grade systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. Excessive tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) concentrations have been implicated in the development of insulin resistance, but direct evidence in humans is lacking. Here, we demonstrate that TNF-alpha infusion in healthy humans induces(More)
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) could be a possible mediator of insulin resistance. We investigated whether IL-6 could inhibit insulin signaling in human skeletal myotubes and whether suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS-3) could be related to insulin resistance in vivo in humans. IL-6 inhibited insulin signaling and induced SOCS-3 expression in differentiated(More)
The paired box homeodomain Pax6 is crucial for endocrine cell development and function and plays an essential role in glucose homeostasis. Indeed, mutations of Pax6 are associated with diabetic phenotype. Importantly, homozygous mutant mice for Pax6 are characterized by markedly decreased β and δ cells and absent α cells. To better understand the critical(More)
OBJECTIVE—Proinflammatory cytokines contribute to sys-temic low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-␣ impedes insulin signaling in insulin target tissues. We determined the role of inhibitor of nuclear factor-␬B kinase (IKK)␤ in TNF-␣–induced impairments in insulin signaling and glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle.(More)
We identified signaling pathways by which IL-6 regulates skeletal muscle differentiation and metabolism. Primary human skeletal muscle cells were exposed to IL-6 (25 ng/ml either acutely or for several days), and small interfering RNA gene silencing was applied to measure glucose and fat metabolism. Chronic IL-6 exposure increased myotube fusion and(More)
To understand better the defects in the proximal steps of insulin signaling during type 2 diabetes, we used differentiated human skeletal muscle cells in primary culture. When compared with cells from control subjects, myotubes established from patients with type 2 diabetes presented the same defects as those previously evidenced in vivo in muscle biopsies,(More)
Islets of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) display features of an inflammatory process including elevated levels of the cytokine IL-1beta, various chemokines, and macrophages. IL-1beta is a master regulator of inflammation, and IL-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI) blockage improves glycemia and insulin secretion in humans with T2DM and in high-fat-fed(More)
Type 2 diabetes is associated with defects in insulin signaling and the resulting abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism. The complexity of insulin signaling cascades is highlighted by the existence of multiple isoforms of target proteins implicated in metabolic and gene-regulatory events. We utilized siRNA to decipher the specific role of predominant(More)
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) induces skeletal muscle insulin resistance by impairing insulin signaling events involved in GLUT4 translocation. We tested whether mitogenic-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase isoform 4 (MAP4K4) causes the TNF-alpha-induced negative regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK-1/2), c-Jun(More)