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OBJECTIVE Surgeons' vigilance regarding patient condition was assessed using eye-tracking techniques during a simulated laparoscopic procedure. METHODS Surgeons were required to perform a partial cholecystectomy in a virtual reality trainer (SurgicalSim; METI Inc, Sarasota, FL) while wearing a lightweight head-mounted eye-tracker (Locarna systems Inc,(More)
BACKGROUND Analysis of motor performance in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is a new field with applications in surgical training, surgical simulators, and robotics. Force/torque and derivatives of tool tip position (velocity, acceleration, and jerk) are examples of measures of motor performance (MMPs). Few studies have measured MMPs or have correlated(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of prolonged continuous wakefulness on resident performance under controlled experimental conditions. DESIGN Experimental within-subjects comparison. SETTING High-fidelity patient simulator. PARTICIPANTS Twelve residents in an Internal Medicine Program at various stages of training (range, 1-35 mos). MEASUREMENTS(More)
The objective of this paper is to present the development of a new modelling diagram (MCMD) to represent MIS procedures in terms of both motor and cognitive actions. Through observation and analysis of several laparoscopic cholecystectomy procedures and based on task analysis techniques, we created a diagram language composed of six primary symbols:(More)
The objective of this paper is to present the initial results of a study aimed at showing the feasibility of using kinematic measures to distinguish skill levels in manipulating surgical tools. Through a simulated surgical task (dissection of a mandarin orange), we acquired motor performance data from three sets of subjects representing different stages of(More)
The purpose of this investigation was to study the role of endothelins (ETs) in the pathogenesis of acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). Eighteen piglets (20 +/- 3 kg) were anesthetized and ventilated with 100% oxygen, five of them then served as controls. Acute thromboembolic injury in the lung was induced by injecting 15-25 ml of preformed clots into(More)
Quantitative performance and skill assessments are critical for evaluating the progress of surgical residents and the efficacy of different training programs. Current evaluation methods are subjective and potentially unreliable, so there is a need for objective methods to evaluate surgical performance. We identify a feasible method to measure kinematic data(More)
We evaluated transcranial magnetic stimulation producing motor evoked potentials (TMS MEP) as a method to detect spinal cord ischemia during surgery for thoracoabdominal aneurysms. Four groups of swine were subjected to different types of surgically-induced ischemia. TMS MEP and neurological function were assessed at baseline, immediately after the ischemic(More)
BACKGROUND Methods for evaluating standard skills in the operating room typically are based on direct observation and checklists, but such evaluations are time consuming and can be subject to bias. It often is possible to acquire more objective measurements using surgical simulators. However, motor performance in simulators can differ significantly from(More)
BACKGROUND Assessment of surgical performance is often accomplished with traditional methods that often provide only subjective data. Trainees who perform well on a simulator in a controlled environment may not perform well in a real operating room environment with distractions. This project uses the ideas of dual-task methodology and applies them to the(More)