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Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are highly conserved transcription factors that play a crucial role in oxygen homeostasis. Intratumoral hypoxia and genetic alterations lead to HIF activity, which is a hallmark of solid cancer and is associated with poor clinical outcome. HIF activity is regulated by an evolutionary conserved mechanism involving(More)
BACKGROUND Evidence accumulates that physical inactivity is one of the few modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. The mechanism through which physical inactivity affects breast cancer risk is not clear. The study aim was to investigate the association between physical activity and breast density because mammographic density is strongly associated with(More)
BACKGROUND Promoter methylation is a common epigenetic mechanism to silence tumor suppressor genes during breast cancer development. We investigated whether BRCA1-associated breast tumors show cancer-predictive methylation patterns similar to those found in sporadic tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS Quantitative multiplex methylation-specific PCR of 11 genes(More)
TWIST1, an antiapoptotic and prometastatic transcription factor, is overexpressed in many epithelial cancers including breast. Only little is known regarding the regulation of TWIST1 in these cancers. Recently, an increase in the TWIST1 promoter methylation has been shown in breast cancers. To correlate the percentage of TWIST1 promoter methylation to the(More)
AIMS Tumour suppressor gene silencing through promoter hypermethylation plays an important role in oncogenesis. Carcinogenesis of hereditary cancers usually differs from that of their sporadic counterparts, but methylation has hardly been studied in hereditary ovarian cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate promoter methylation of a set of common(More)
BACKGROUND Promoter hypermethylation has emerged as a promising cancer biomarker. Currently, a large variety of quantitative and non-quantitative techniques is used to measure methylation in clinical specimens. Here we directly compared three commonly used methylation assays and assessed the influence of tissue fixation, target sequence location and the(More)
The high rate of interval malignancies urges for new screening methods for women at high risk for breast cancer. Nipple aspiration provides direct access to the breast tissue and its DNA, and therefore is a likely candidate, but clinical applications have been limited by the failure to obtain nipple aspiration fluid from most women. We performed(More)
Lack of sensitivity and specificity of image-based breast cancer screening has urged the exploration of alternate screening modalities. Nipple fluid, which contains breast epithelial cells, is produced in small amounts in the breast ducts of nonlactating women and can be collected by noninvasive vacuum aspiration. After administration of nasal oxytocin,(More)
The need for additional breast cancer screening tools is indisputably high, as one may conclude from the high rate of interval malignancies in women undergoing regular screening. DNA promoter methylation frequently occurs during breast carcinogenesis and is an early event in this process. Moreover, a field defect for methylation has been described and(More)