Karidia Diallo

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As antiretroviral therapy (ART) is scaled up in resource-limited countries, surveillance for HIV drug resistance (DR) is vital to ensure sustained effectiveness of first-line ART. We have developed and applied a broadly sensitive dried-blood-spot (DBS)-based genotyping assay for surveillance of HIV-1 DR in international settings. In 2005 and 2006, 171 DBS(More)
BACKGROUND Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is being administered in developing nations at unprecedented numbers following the World Health Organization's (WHO) development of standardized first-line drug regimens. To ensure continued efficacy of these drug regimens, WHO recommends monitoring virological responses and development of human immunodeficiency virus(More)
This report describes a pilot study, conducted in Nigeria, of the World Health Organization protocol for monitoring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance (HIVDR) and associated program factors among patients receiving first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART). In 2008, 283 HIV-infected patients starting ART were consecutively enrolled at 2 ART(More)
High-throughput, sensitive, and cost-effective HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) detection assays are needed for large-scale monitoring of the emergence and transmission of HIVDR in resource-limited settings. Using suspension array technology, we have developed a multiplex allele-specific (MAS) assay that can simultaneously detect major HIVDR mutations at 20(More)
Detection of recent HIV infections is a prerequisite for reliable estimations of transmitted HIV drug resistance (t-HIVDR) and incidence. However, accurately identifying recent HIV infection is challenging due partially to the limitations of current serological tests. Ambiguous nucleotides are newly emerged mutations in quasispecies, and accumulate by time(More)
Whatman 903 filter paper is the only filter paper that has been used for HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) genotyping in resource-limited settings. In this study, we evaluated another dried blood specimen collection device, termed SampleTanker(®) (ST), for HIVDR genotyping. Blood specimens from 123 antiretroviral therapy (ART)-experienced patients were used to(More)
Dried blood spots (DBS) are an alternative specimen type for HIV drug resistance genotyping in resource-limited settings. Data relating to the impact of DBS storage and shipment conditions on genotyping efficiency under field conditions are limited. We compared the genotyping efficiencies and resistance profiles of DBS stored and shipped at different(More)
UNLABELLED Commercially available HIV-1 drug resistance (HIVDR) genotyping assays are expensive and have limitations in detecting non-B subtypes and circulating recombinant forms that are co-circulating in resource-limited settings (RLS). This study aimed to optimize a low cost and broadly sensitive in-house assay in detecting HIVDR mutations in the(More)
The World Health Organization currently does not recommend the use of dried blood spot specimens for drug resistance testing in patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy (ART). Therefore, HIV-1 resistance testing using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) may be of value in resource-limited settings. We compared genotypic resistance profiles in(More)
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends viral load testing as the preferred method for monitoring the clinical response of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection to antiretroviral therapy (ART) (1). Viral load monitoring of patients on ART helps ensure early diagnosis and confirmation of ART failure and enables clinicians to take(More)