Kari Saukkonen

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During the course of whooping cough, Bordetella pertussis interacts with alveolar macrophages and other leukocytes on the respiratory epithelium. We report here mechanisms by which these bacteria adhere to human macrophages in vitro. Whole bacteria adhere by means of two proteins, filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) and pertussis toxin, either of which is(More)
Cytokines mediate many host responses to bacterial infections. We determined the inflammatory activities of five cytokines in the central nervous system: TNF-alpha, IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, macrophage inflammatory protein 1 (MIP-1), and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2). Using a rabbit model of meningeal inflammation, each cytokine (except IL-1 beta)(More)
We tested if specific inhibition of recruitment of leukocytes across the blood brain barrier from the vascular compartment to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space reduced tissue damage and improved the outcome of infection in a rabbit model of experimental meningitis. The CD11/CD18 complex of receptors on leukocytes promotes adhesion of these cells to(More)
The adherence of Bordetella pertussis to human respiratory cilia is critical to the pathogenesis of whooping cough but the significance of bacterial attachment to macrophages has not been determined. Adherence to cilia and macrophages is mediated by two large, nonfimbrial bacterial proteins, filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), and pertussis toxin (PT). PT and(More)
Bordetella pertussis is bound to glycoconjugates on human cilia and macrophages by multiple adhesins, including pertussis toxin. The cellular recognition properties of the B oligomer of pertussis toxin were characterized and the location and structural requirements of the recognition domains were identified by site-directed mutagenesis of recombinant(More)
where (~xn) ∈ B and B is a Boolean algebra. Only finite Boolean algebras are considered. The Boolean logic presented is based on the abstract Boolean algebra given by Huntington’s [14] postulates and on a special canonical form for a Boolean function given by Archie Blake [2]. The theory of reasoning is divided into functional and general parts, both of(More)
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