Karen van Eunen

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Acetate, propionate, and butyrate are the main short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that arise from the fermentation of fibers by the colonic microbiota. While many studies focus on the regulatory role of SCFAs, their quantitative role as a catabolic or anabolic substrate for the host has received relatively little attention. To investigate this aspect, we(More)
Cells adapt to changes in their environment by the concerted action of many different regulatory mechanisms. Examples of such mechanisms are feedback inhibition by intermediates of metabolism, covalent modification of enzymes and changes in the abundance of mRNAs and proteins. These mechanisms act in parallel at different levels in the cellular hierarchy(More)
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are the main products of dietary fiber fermentation and are believed to drive the fiber-related prevention of the metabolic syndrome. Here we show that dietary SCFAs induce a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ)-dependent switch from lipid synthesis to utilization. Dietary SCFA supplementation prevented and(More)
The field of systems biology is often held back by difficulties in obtaining comprehensive, high-quality, quantitative data sets. In this paper, we undertook an interlaboratory effort to generate such a data set for a very large number of cellular components in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a widely used model organism that is also used in the(More)
Intracellular accumulation of glycerol is essential for yeast cells to survive hyperosmotic stress. Upon hyperosmotic stress the gene expression of enzymes in the glycerol pathway is strongly induced. Recently, however, it was shown that this gene-expression response is not essential for survival of an osmotic shock [Mettetal JT et al. (2008) Science 319:(More)
Time-dependent regulation analysis is a new methodology that allows us to unravel, both quantitatively and dynamically, how and when functional changes in the cell are brought about by the interplay of gene expression and metabolism. In this first experimental implementation, we dissect the initial and late response of baker's yeast upon a switch from(More)
Realistic quantitative models require data from many laboratories. Therefore, standardization of experimental systems and assay conditions is crucial. Moreover, standards should be representative of the in vivo conditions. However, most often, enzyme-kinetic parameters are measured under assay conditions that yield the maximum activity of each enzyme. In(More)
In vitro enzymatic assays of cell-free extracts offer an opportunity to assess in vivo enzyme concentrations. If performed under conditions that resemble the conditions in vivo, they may also reveal some of the capacities and properties of the same enzymes in vivo; we shall call this the ex vivo approach. The kinetic characterization of purified enzymes has(More)
Biology and medicine have become 'big science', even though we may not always like this: genomics and the subsequent analysis of what the genomes encode has shown that interesting living organisms require many more than 300 gene products to interact. We once thought that somewhere in this jungle of interacting macromolecules was hidden the molecule that(More)
The dietary fiber guar gum has beneficial effects on obesity, hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia in both humans and rodents. The major products of colonic fermentation of dietary fiber, the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), have been suggested to play an important role. Recently, we showed that SCFAs protect against the metabolic syndrome via a signaling(More)