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Cdx1 encodes a mammalian homeobox gene involved in vertebral patterning. Retinoic acid (RA) is likewise implicated in vertebral patterning. We have previously shown that Cdx1 is a direct retinoid target gene, suggesting that Cdx1 may convey some of the effects of retinoid signaling. However, RA appears to be essential for only early stages of Cdx1(More)
The Cdx transcription factors regulate anterior-posterior (AP) vertebral patterning, at least in part, through direct regulation of Hox gene expression. Analysis of allelic series of Cdx mutant mice suggests functional overlap between these family members. However, the lack of a Cdx2 null mutant makes these analyses incomplete. Moreover, Hox proteins are(More)
In the mouse, Cdx1 is essential for normal anteroposterior vertebral patterning through regulation of a subset of Hox genes. Retinoic acid (RA) and certain Wnts have also been implicated in vertebral patterning, although the relationship between these signaling pathways and the regulation of mesodermal Hox gene expression is not fully understood. Prior work(More)
Prepregnancy maternal obesity confers an increased risk of stillbirth, but the mechanisms are unknown. Maternal obesity is associated with placental inflammation. We considered that maternal diet may predispose to the increased risk of placental inflammation and stillbirth. We hypothesized that a chronic high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with abnormal(More)
There is considerable evidence that the Cdx gene products impact on vertebral patterning by direct regulation of Hox gene expression. Data from a number of vertebrate model systems also suggest that Cdx1, Cdx2 and Cdx4 are targets of caudalizing signals such as RA, Wnt and FGF. These observations have lead to the hypothesis that Cdx members serve to relay(More)
Three dimensional bilateral imaging is the standard for most clinical breast dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI protocols. Because of high spatial resolution (sRes) requirement, the typical 1-2 min temporal resolution (tRes) afforded by a conventional full-k-space-sampling gradient echo (GRE) sequence precludes meaningful and accurate pharmacokinetic(More)
PURPOSE To prospectively investigate whether a rapid dynamic MRI protocol, in conjunction with pharmacokinetic modeling, could provide diagnostically useful information for discriminating biopsy-proven benign lesions from malignancies. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients referred to breast biopsy based on suspicious screening findings were eligible. After(More)
Fetal kidneys are evaluated on routine obstetric ultrasounds; therefore, fetal renal developmental anomalies are frequently encountered with prenatal screening. Absence of the fetal kidney from its expected location generates a differential diagnosis that originates from the knowledge of the developmental origins of the kidneys. Many of the renal(More)
OBJECTIVES Recognize posterior fossa anomalies on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging and appreciate imaging pitfalls that may lead to misdiagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS Cases are presented to illustrate normal development and various anomalies. Postnatal studies and autopsy are used for correlation with prenatal imaging. RESULTS Normal anatomy(More)
Tethered spinal cord is associated with closed and open neural tube defects. With prenatal screening, spinal defects are consistently diagnosed during fetal life. We show that the conus medullaris can be seen well with prenatal ultrasound, and the diagnosis of tethered spinal cord can be made during fetal life. In this pictorial essay, we show examples of(More)