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The Cdx1 gene product is essential for normal anterior-posterior vertebral patterning. Expression of Cdx1 is regulated by several pathways implicated in anterior-posterior patterning events, including retinoid and Wnt signaling. We have previously shown that retinoic acid plays a key role in early stages of Cdx1 expression at embryonic day 7.5 (E7.5), while(More)
Three dimensional bilateral imaging is the standard for most clinical breast dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI protocols. Because of high spatial resolution (sRes) requirement, the typical 1-2 min temporal resolution (tRes) afforded by a conventional full-k-space-sampling gradient echo (GRE) sequence precludes meaningful and accurate pharmacokinetic(More)
Shutter-speed pharmacokinetic analysis of dynamic-contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI data allows evaluation of equilibrium inter-compartmental water interchange kinetics. The process measured here - transcytolemmal water exchange - is characterized by the mean intracellular water molecule lifetime (τi). The τi biomarker is a true intensive property not accessible(More)
Phosphoinositides regulate myriad cellular processes, acting as potent signaling molecules in conserved signaling pathways and as organelle gatekeepers that recruit effector proteins to membranes. Phosphoinositide-generating enzymes have been studied extensively in yeast and cultured cells, yet their roles in animal development are not well understood.(More)
PURPOSE The maternal microvasculature of the primate placenta is organized into 10-20 perfusion domains that are functionally optimized to facilitate nutrient exchange to support fetal growth. This study describes a dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging method for identifying vascular domains and quantifying maternal blood flow in them. (More)
Tethered spinal cord is associated with closed and open neural tube defects. With prenatal screening, spinal defects are consistently diagnosed during fetal life. We show that the conus medullaris can be seen well with prenatal ultrasound, and the diagnosis of tethered spinal cord can be made during fetal life. In this pictorial essay, we show examples of(More)
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