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The aim of this study was to identify the subtle influences of exposure and individual lifestyles on the risk of developing tuberculosis. A retrospective case-control study (with matching by sex, age, postcode and ethnicity) of all tuberculosis cases notified over a 7-yr period in Liverpool, UK, was carried out. Multiple logistic regression showed that,(More)
Acknowledgements We would like to thank the following for their contributions to the editing, proofreading and design of previous versions of the report or in enabling access to datasets and the production of indicators: Reports in the series The reports in the Indications of Public Health in the English Regions series address areas covered by the White(More)
BACKGROUND While alcohol-related health and social problems amongst youths are increasing internationally, both consumption and associated harms are particularly high in British youth. Youth drinking patterns, including bingeing, frequent drinking and drinking in public spaces, are associated with increased risks of acute (e.g. violence) and long-term (e.g.(More)
T he recent introduction of the Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Bill 1 follows a whole range of strategies and subsequent interventions aimed at reducing levels of smoking in the UK. In particular, Smoking kills: a white paper on tobacco 2 has resulted in national investments to develop smoking cessation services both in primary care and through(More)
Table A1. – Sources of alcohol and reasons for drinking, by gender, age and drinking category (drinkers only) Table A2. – Number of units drunk per week (average in drinkers) and frequency of drinking (percentage), by gender, age and drinking category Table A3. – Percentage of respondents agreeing that access and availability of alcohol influences alcohol(More)
BACKGROUND Patient choice and access to health care is compromised by many barriers including travel distance. Individuals with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can seek free specialist care in Britain, without a referral, providing flexible access to care services. Willingness to travel beyond local services for preferred care has funding and service(More)
1 Executive summary Approximately a fifth of the population in England are thought to drink at hazardous levels of consumption, and a further 5% at harmful levels. Such levels of consumption are associated with a wide range of health, crime and economic harms. However, neither consumption nor harms are universally experienced, and in order to effectively(More)
Acknowledgements We greatly appreciate the support of the Regional Director of Public Health, the regional Public Health Group, NHS North West and the NWPHO Steering Group to enable NWPHO to run this lifestyle survey. In addition, the regional working group that devised the core recommended questions for lifestyles surveys were invaluable in helping devise(More)
This study assessed the contribution of immigration and deprivation to the changes in tuberculosis notifications in Liverpool over the last 20 yrs. Ethnic origin was retrospectively assigned to all named cases from 1974 to 1995. Average tuberculosis rates were calculated for the 33 council wards in Liverpool for 1981-1985 and 1991-1995. Multiple regression(More)
BACKGROUND The UK government claims that between 10 and 30% of pubs and bars will be exempt from proposed legislation to achieve smokefree enclosed public places across England. This arises from the contentious inclusion that pubs and bars that do not prepare and serve food and private members clubs, will be able to allow smoking. We aimed to survey pubs(More)