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OBJECTIVE The advent of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-blocking drugs has provided rheumatologists with an effective, but highly expensive, treatment for the management of established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our aim was to explore preclinically the application of camelid anti-TNF VHH proteins, which are single-domain antigen binding (VHH) proteins(More)
Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is unable to interact spontaneously with platelets because this interaction requires a conversion of the VWF A1 domain into a glycoprotein Ibalpha (GpIbalpha) binding conformation. Here, we discuss a llama-derived antibody fragment (AU/VWFa-11) that specifically recognizes the GpIbalpha-binding conformation. AU/VWFa-11 is unable(More)
A central paradigm in immunology states that successful generation of high affinity antibodies necessitates an immense primary repertoire of antigen-combining sites. Much of the diversity of this repertoire is provided by varying one antigen binding loop, created by inserting randomly a D (diversity) gene out of a small pool between the V and J genes. It is(More)
Neutralizing the interaction of the platelet receptor gpIb with VWF is an attractive strategy to treat and prevent thrombotic complications. ALX-0081 is a bivalent Nanobody which specifically targets the gpIb-binding site of VWF and interacts avidly with VWF. Nanobodies are therapeutic proteins derived from naturally occurring heavy-chain-only Abs and(More)
To combine the CD27 stimulation inhibitory effect of blocking CD70 antibodies with an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC)-independent, cell death-inducing activity for targeting of CD70-expressing tumors, we evaluated here fusion proteins of the apoptosis-inducing TNF family member TRAIL and a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) derived from a(More)
Expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-inducible 14 (Fn14), a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, is typically low in healthy adult organisms, but strong Fn14 expression is induced in tissue injury and tissue remodeling. High Fn14 expression is also observed in solid tumors, which is why this receptor is under consideration as a(More)
Clefts on protein surfaces are avoided by antigen-combining sites of conventional antibodies, in contrast to heavy-chain antibodies (HCAbs) of camelids that seem to be attracted by enzymes' substrate pockets. The explanation for this pronounced preference of HCAbs was investigated. Eight single domain antigen-binding fragments of HCAbs (VHH) with nanomolar(More)
Overexpression of CD70 has been documented in a variety of solid and hematological tumors, where it is thought to play a role in tumor proliferation and evasion of immune surveillance. Here, we describe ARGX-110, a defucosylated IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) that selectively targets and neutralizes CD70, the ligand of CD27.   ARGX-110 was generated by(More)
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor MET represent validated targets for cancer therapy. However, HGF/MET inhibitors being explored as cancer therapeutics exhibit cytostatic activity rather than cytotoxic activity, which would be more desired. In this study, we engineered an antagonistic anti-MET antibody that, in addition to blocking HGF/MET(More)
Over the last decades, advances in the knowledge of immunology have led to the identification of immune checkpoints, reinvigorating cancer immunotherapy. Although normally restricted to activated T and B cells, constitutive expression of CD70 in tumor cells has been described. Moreover, CD70 is implicated in tumor cell and regulatory T cell survival through(More)