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Aneuploidy arising early in development is the leading genetic cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities in humans. Most errors in chromosome number originate from the egg, and maternal age is well established as the key risk factor. Although the importance of this problem for reproductive health is widely recognized, the underlying molecular(More)
Aurora kinases are highly conserved, essential regulators of cell division. Two Aurora kinase isoforms, A and B (AURKA and AURKB), are expressed ubiquitously in mammals, whereas a third isoform, Aurora C (AURKC), is largely restricted to germ cells. Because AURKC is very similar to AURKB, based on sequence and functional analyses, why germ cells express(More)
Sporulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a highly regulated process wherein a diploid cell gives rise to four haploid gametes. In this study we show that histone H4 Ser1 is phosphorylated (H4 S1ph) during sporulation, starting from mid-sporulation and persisting to germination, and is temporally distinct from earlier meiosis-linked H3 S10ph involved in(More)
The elevated incidence of aneuploidy in human oocytes warrants study of the molecular mechanisms regulating proper chromosome segregation. The Aurora kinases are a well-conserved family of serine/threonine kinases that are involved in proper chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis. Here we report the expression and localization of all three Aurora(More)
This study explored the geochemistry and microbial diversity of a Superfund site containing trichloroethene (TCE) and an unusual co-pollutant, tetrakis(2-ethylbutoxy)silane. Geochemical analysis of contaminated groundwater indicated subsurface anaerobiosis, reductive dechlorination of TCE to predominantly cis-1,2-dichloroethene, and (transient) accumulation(More)
Mammalian oocytes are arrested in metaphase of second meiosis (MII) until fertilization. This arrest is enforced by the cytostatic factor (CSF), which maintains the M-phase promoting factor (MPF) in a highly active state. Although the continuous synthesis and degradation of cyclin B to maintain the CSF-mediated MII arrest is well established, it is unknown(More)
Meiotic maturation in oocytes is a prolonged process that is unique because of cell cycle arrests at prophase of meiosis I (MI) and at metaphase of meiosis II (MII). Fluctuations in cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1/CDC2A) activity govern meiotic progression, yet little is known about how these fluctuations are achieved. CDC14 is a highly conserved(More)
Mutations of the receptor tyrosine kinase c-kit or its ligand stem cell factor (SCF), which is encoded as a soluble and membrane-associated protein by the Steel gene in mice, lead to deficiencies of germ cells, melanocytes, and hematopoiesis, including the erythroid lineage. In the present study, we have used genetic methods to study the role of membrane or(More)
Aurora B kinase (AURKB) is the catalytic subunit of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC), an essential regulator of chromosome segregation. In mitosis, the CPC is required to regulate kinetochore microtubule (K-MT) attachments, the spindle assembly checkpoint, and cytokinesis. Germ cells express an AURKB homolog, AURKC, which can also function in the(More)
Oocytes arrest at prophase of meiosis I (MI) and in vivo do not resume meiosis until they receive ovulatory cues. Meiotic resumption entails two rounds of chromosome segregation without an intervening round of DNA replication and an arrest at metaphase of meiosis II (MII); fertilization triggers exit from MII and entry into interphase. During meiotic(More)