Preface This report presents Version 1 of Object-Z, an extension to the speciication language Z, which facilitates the speciication of systems in an object-oriented style. The report includes a concrete syntax and four case studies. Some aspects pertinent to object-oriented speciication are not in this version of Object-Z but are being investigated for… (More)
Tooth size varies exponentially with body weight in primates. Logarithmic transformation of tooth crown area and body weight yields a linear model of slope 0.67 as an isometric (geometric) baseline for study of dental allometry. This model is compared with that predicted by metabolic scaling (slope = 0.75). Tarsius and other insectivores have larger teeth… (More)
Here we describe the findings of a unique example of the early techniques adopted in neurosurgery around 5000 years ago, consisting in a double well healed skull trephination associated with a post-cranial traumatic event occurring intra vitam to a young male from the Early Chalcolithic cemetery of Pontecagnano (South Italy, ca. 4,900 - 4,500 cal BP).… (More)
BACKGROUND Whether differences exist in male and female lumbar lordosis has been debated by researchers who are divided as to the nature of variations in the spinal curve, their origin, reasoning, and implications from a morphological, functional and evolutionary perspective. Evaluation of the spinal curvature is constructive in understanding the evolution… (More)
Birth is a challenging and perhaps painful process for primates that have large heads relative to their body size. This includes our own species, but for humans, the pelvic changes resulting from the origin of bi-pedalism 5–7million years ago restructured the pelvis, altered the birth mechanism and further limited the size of the birth canal. Additional… (More)
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