Karen P. Galen

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RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES During echo examinations with microbubble contrast, individual "dots" of ultrasound reflection can be visualized. To address the question whether these signals represent individual microbubbles, very dilute suspensions of ultrasound contrast agents or individual microbubbles attached to Petri dishes were prepared and studied by(More)
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES A series of preclinical tests were undertaken during the developmental process to determine the safety profile of gadoversetamide injection (OptiMARK). METHODS Acute intravenous, acute intracisternal, and repeated-dose toxicities; cardiovascular effects; and genetic and reproductive toxicology characteristics were assessed in(More)
Real-time, noninvasive assessment of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is essential not only for monitoring critically ill patients at the bedside, but also for staging and monitoring patients with chronic kidney disease. In our pursuit to develop exogenous luminescent probes for dynamic optical monitoring of GFR, we have prepared and evaluated Eu(3+)(More)
TLR9 is a key determinant of the innate immune responses in both infectious and sterile injury. Specific antagonism of TLR9 is of great clinical interest to reduce tissue damage in a wide range of pathologies, and has been approached by modification of nucleic acids, the recognized ligand for TLR9. Such oligonucleotide-derived pharmacotherapeutics have(More)
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES This study assessed the cardiovascular effects of gadoversetamide and other gadolinium chelates administered at high rates of injection. METHODS Anesthetized beagles were instrumented to record the electrocardiogram and to measure arterial blood pressure. In part 1, each animal was injected with gadoversetamide at rates of 1.0,(More)
Novel pyrazine carboxamides bearing hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) moieties were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for use as fluorescent glomerular filtration rate (GFR) tracer agents. Among these, compounds 4d and 5c that contain about 48 ethylene oxide units in the PEG chain exhibited the most favorable physicochemical and renal clearance(More)
Intravenous MRI contrast agents are commonly used to improve the detection of intracranial tumors and other central nervous system (CNS) lesions for diagnosis and treatment planning. Two small-molecule, albumin-binding blood pool contrast agents (MP-2269 and MS-325) of potential clinical significance were evaluated at 1.5 Tesla in a mouse glioma model and(More)
The generation of ultrasound (US) bioeffects using a clinical imaging system is controversial. We tested the hypothesis that the presence of microbubbles in the US field of a medical imager induces biologic effects. Both kidneys of anesthetized rats were insonified for 5 min using a medical imaging system after the administration of microbubbles. One kidney(More)