Learn More
In patients with progressive disease, untreated HIV-1 infection is characterized by high viral loads and decreasing CD4(+)T cell counts which lead to opportunistic infection and other AIDS-defining illness. A rare subset of patients termed 'elite controllers' (ECs) maintain control over viremia and often retain normal CD4(+)T cell levels without treatment(More)
The development of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to treat individuals infected with HIV-1 has dramatically improved patient outcomes, but HAART still fails to cure the infection. The latent viral reservoir in resting CD4+ T cells is a major barrier to virus eradication. Elimination of this reservoir requires reactivation of the latent virus.(More)
Integrated HIV-1 genomes are found within actively transcribed host genes in latently infected CD4(+) T cells. Readthrough transcription of the host gene might therefore suppress HIV-1 gene expression and promote the latent infection that allows viral persistence in patients on therapy. To address the effect of host gene readthrough, we used homologous(More)
A cross-sectional study on patients with early-stage multiple sclerosis (MS) was conducted to examine the reliability of manual and automatic mobility measures derived from shank-mounted inertial sensors during the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, compared to control subjects. Furthermore, we aimed to determine if disease status [as measured by the Multiple(More)
A subset of HIV-1-infected patients known as elite controllers or suppressors (ES) control the virus naturally. We have previously demonstrated sequence discordance between proviral and plasma gag clones in ES, much of which can be attributed to selective pressure from the host (J. R. Bailey, T. M. Williams, R. F. Siliciano, and J. N. Blankson, J. Exp. Med.(More)
Leukocyte-endothelial cell (EC) interactions regulate the entry of immune effectors into the tissues. This interaction occurs in lymphoid tissues and inflammatory sites at post-capillary high endothelial venules, as opposed to large capacitance vessels lined with flat EC. Transient SV40 infection of mouse EC derived from lymph node stroma has resulted in a(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells are associated with the innate immune response and are important in many viral infections. Recent studies indicate that NK cells can control human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. We studied the effect of NK cells on HIV-1 replication in a subpopulation of HIV-1-infected individuals termed elite suppressors (ES)(More)
Elite suppressors or controllers (ES) are HIV-1 infected patients who maintain undetectable viral loads without treatment. While HLA-B*57-positive ES are usually infected with virus that is unmutated at CTL epitopes, a single, dominant variant containing CTL escape mutations is typically seen in plasma during chronic infection. We describe an ES who(More)
Recognition by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) of syngeneic cells transformed with simian virus 40 (SV40) was examined by using cells expressing known portions of the SV40 early region both as sensitizing cells for stimulation of CTL development and as targets for lysis by CTL. LMTK- cells transfected with a plasmid specifying a 33K amino-terminal fragment of(More)
Circulating HIV-1-infected monocytes have been identified in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy and may represent an important barrier to viral eradication. The nature of these cells in HIV-1-infected patients who maintain undetectable viral loads and preserved CD4(+) T cell counts without antiretroviral therapy (known as elite controllers or(More)