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Evidence indicates that noradrenaline elicits anti-inflammatory actions in the central nervous system (CNS), and plays a neuroprotective role where inflammatory events contribute to pathology. Here we examined the ability of pharmacological enhancement of central noradrenergic tone to impact upon activation of the IL-1 system in rat brain. Treatment with(More)
Evidence suggests that noradrenaline has a tonic anti-inflammatory action in the central nervous system (CNS) via its ability to suppress microglial and astrocytic activation, and inhibit production of inflammatory mediators. Consequently it is suggested that noradrenaline may play an endogenous neuroprotective role in CNS disorders where inflammatory(More)
Evidence indicates that the monoamine neurotransmitter noradrenaline elicits anti-inflammatory actions in the central nervous system (CNS), and consequently may play a neuroprotective role where inflammatory events contribute to CNS pathology. Here we examined the ability of pharmacologically enhancing central noradrenergic tone to induce expression of(More)
This study updates a previous analysis of trends in medical use and abuse of opioid analgesics, and provides data from 1997 through 2002. Two research questions were evaluated: 1) What are the trends in the medical use and abuse of frequently prescribed opioid analgesics used to treat severe pain, including fentanyl, hydromorphone, meperidine, morphine, and(More)
OBJECTIVE MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression, including genes involved in neuronal function and plasticity that have relevance for brain function and mental health. We therefore performed a systematic review of miRNAs in general adult psychiatric disorders. METHOD Systematic searches in PubMed/MEDLINE and Web of(More)
CONTEXT Pain often is inadequately treated due in part to reluctance about using opioid analgesics and fear that they will be abused. Although international and national expert groups have determined that opioid analgesics are essential for the relief of pain, little information has been available about the health consequences of the abuse of these drugs.(More)
Preventing diversion and abuse of prescription controlled substances while ensuring their availability for legitimate medical use is an important public health goal in the United States. In one approach to preventing and identifying drug diversion, 17 states have implemented prescription monitoring programs (PMPs) to monitor the prescribing of certain(More)
In July 2003, the Center continued its work to address opioid availability in Eastern Europe. Several staff members visited Romania to study the health and regulatory system for making opioid analgesics available for pain relief, and to meet with various units of the national government to understand the issues and begin developing action strategies. In(More)
Evidence suggests that noradrenaline has a tonic anti-inflammatory action in the central nervous system (CNS) via its ability to inhibit expression of inflammatory mediators from glial cells. Consequently it is suggested that noradrenaline may play an endogenous neuroprotective role in CNS disorders where inflammatory events contribute to pathology.(More)
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective antidepressant treatment available yet its mechanism of action remains incompletely understood. Electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS), a rat model of electroconvulsive therapy, induces expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) within the brain but the precise means by which this occurs and by(More)