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Maternal hypoxia is a common perturbation that can disrupt placental and thus fetal development, contributing to neonatal impairments. Recently, evidence has suggested that physiological outcomes are dependent upon the sex of the fetus, with males more susceptible to hypoxic insults than females. This study investigated the effects of maternal hypoxia(More)
It is well established that erythropoiesis occurs first in the yolk sac, then in the liver, subsequently moving to the bone marrow and, in rodents, the spleen during development. The origin of the erythropoietic precursors and some factors suggested to be important for the changing location of erythropoiesis are discussed in this review. Until recently, the(More)
We have shown that exposure of pregnant ewes to dexamethasone (11.5 mg/d for 2 days) at 27 days of gestation (term, 150 days) led to increased blood pressure and cardiac output in adult offspring. In this study, we hypothesized that dexamethasone-induced hypertension is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and a reduced cardiac functional reserve(More)
Unilateral nephrectomy of the adult animal results in compensatory renal growth but does not involve formation of new nephrons. It is not clear whether compensatory growth can occur during the period of active nephrogenesis in utero and if so, whether more nephrons can be formed. Male ovine fetuses (n = 20) underwent unilateral nephrectomy (n = 10) or sham(More)
This review highlights the important roles the mesonephros may play in development. In the ovine fetus it is an excretory and endocrine organ and may contribute to the formation of normal gonads and adrenals. The metanephros of the ovine fetus has the important function of providing large quantities of dilute urine for the maintenance of amniotic and(More)
The complex role of the renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) in arterial pressure regulation has been well documented. Recently, we demonstrated that chronic low-dose angiotensin II (ANG II) infusion decreases arterial pressure in female rats via an AT(2)R-mediated mechanism. Estrogen can differentially regulate components of the RAS and is known to influence(More)
It is unknown whether low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption adversely affects postnatal health. The aim of the present study was to develop a rodent model of low-moderate-dose prenatal ethanol (EtOH) exposure. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a liquid diet with or without 6% v/v EtOH throughout gestation and the pattern of dietary consumption determined.(More)
1.Glucocorticoids (GCs) are necessary for fetal development, but clinical and experimental studies suggest that excess exposure may be detrimental to health in both the short and longer term. 2.Exposure of the fetus to synthetic GCs can occur if the mother has a medical condition requiring GC therapy (e.g. asthma) or if she threatens to deliver her baby(More)
Gestational stressors, including glucocorticoids and protein restriction, can affect kidney development and hence final nephron number. Since hypoxia is a common insult during pregnancy, we studied the influence of oxygen tension on kidney development in models designed to represent a pathological hypoxic insult. In vivo mouse models of moderate, transient,(More)
Reduced nephron endowment is associated with development of renal and cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized this may be attributable to impaired sodium homoeostasis by the remaining nephrons. The present study investigated whether a nephron deficit, induced by fetal uninephrectomy at 100 days gestation (term=150 days), resulted in (i) altered renal sodium(More)