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The Merkel cell distribution in the basal epidermis of amphibian and mammalian skin was visualized in whole mounts by means of quinacrine fluorescence. In most cases only the isolated epidermis was viewed following dermal-epidermal separation. Tadpole tentacles contained numerous quinacrine fluorescent cells (QFC) 25–40 μm apart. Groups of 2–4 QFC were(More)
The neuroprotective effect and molecular mechanisms underlying preconditioning with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) in cultured hippocampal neurons have not been described. Pre-incubation with subtoxic concentrations of the endogenous neurotransmitter glutamate protects vulnerable neurons against NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity. As a result of(More)
Exercise increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), phosphorylated cAMP response-element binding protein (pCREB), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and synapsin-I, each of which has been implicated in neuroplastic processes underlying recovery from ischemia. In this study we examined the temporal profile (0, 30, 60 and 120 min following exercise)(More)
The collateral sprouting of intact sensory axons and the regeneration of damaged ones differ in a number of respects. Regeneration is triggered by axotomy-induced damage, probably involves the loss of a peripheral signal, and appears to occur independently of NGF, while collateral sprouting is evoked and sustained by an increase in a target-derived signal,(More)
Delineating the mechanisms of survival pathways that exist in neurons will provide important insight into how neurons utilize intracellular proteins as neuroprotectants against the causes of acute neurodegeneration. We have employed cultured rat cerebellar granule cells as a model for determining the mechanisms of these intraneuronal survival pathways.(More)
A 2.4 kb cDNA clone containing the coding sequence for glutamine synthetase (GS) was isolated from a rat brain cDNA library, and a probe constructed from this cDNA was utilized in Northern analysis of total RNA to study the tissue distribution and the ontogeny of GS mRNA expression in the rat brain from embryonic day 14 (E14) to adulthood. The levels of GS(More)
Nerve growth factor (NGF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) play an important role in promoting axonal growth from dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Adult DRG neurons exhibit neurotrophin-independent survival, providing an excellent system with which to study trophic factor effects on neurite growth in the absence of significant survival effects.(More)
We have investigated some of the physiological, morphological and trophic characteristics of the Merkel cell-neurite complexes in the skin of Xenopus laevis. The Merkel cells, which are specialized sensory cells, occur in groups of 2-4 around the openings of the cutaneous gland ducts. A voltage-controlled mechanical stimulator was used to determine the(More)
Both a partial cDNA clone and a complete genomic clone have been isolated for human gfa, the gene encoding the major component of astrocyte intermediate filaments, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The nucleotide sequence of the entire coding region and 102 bp of the 5' flanking DNA was determined. The mRNA start site was identified by primer(More)