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The neuroprotective effect and molecular mechanisms underlying preconditioning with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) in cultured hippocampal neurons have not been described. Pre-incubation with subtoxic concentrations of the endogenous neurotransmitter glutamate protects vulnerable neurons against NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity. As a result of(More)
Nerve growth factor (NGF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) play an important role in promoting axonal growth from dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Adult DRG neurons exhibit neurotrophin-independent survival, providing an excellent system with which to study trophic factor effects on neurite growth in the absence of significant survival effects.(More)
Exercise increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), phosphorylated cAMP response-element binding protein (pCREB), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and synapsin-I, each of which has been implicated in neuroplastic processes underlying recovery from ischemia. In this study we examined the temporal profile (0, 30, 60 and 120 min following exercise)(More)
The signal transduction and molecular mechanisms underlying alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA)-mediated neuroprotection are unknown. In the present study, we determined a major AMPA receptor-mediated neuroprotective pathway. Exposure of cerebellar granule cells to AMPA (500 microM) + aniracetam (1 microM), a known blocker of AMPA(More)
The collateral sprouting of intact sensory axons and the regeneration of damaged ones differ in a number of respects. Regeneration is triggered by axotomy-induced damage, probably involves the loss of a peripheral signal, and appears to occur independently of NGF, while collateral sprouting is evoked and sustained by an increase in a target-derived signal,(More)
We have investigated some of the physiological, morphological and trophic characteristics of the Merkel cell-neurite complexes in the skin of Xenopus laevis. The Merkel cells, which are specialized sensory cells, occur in groups of 2-4 around the openings of the cutaneous gland ducts. A voltage-controlled mechanical stimulator was used to determine the(More)
The optimal amount of endurance exercise required to elevate proteins involved in neuroplasticity during stroke rehabilitation is not known. This study compared the effects of varying intensities and durations of endurance exercise using both motorized and voluntary running wheels after endothelin-I-induced focal ischemia in rats. Hippocampal levels of(More)
Although neurons of the PNS no longer require neurotrophins such as Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) for their survival, such factors are involved in regulating axonal sprouting and regeneration after injury. In addition to the neurotrophin receptors, sensory neurons are reported to express IGF-1, EGF and FGF receptors. To investigate the influence of growth(More)
We used compartmented cultures to study the regulation of adult sensory neurite growth by neurotrophins. We examined the effects of the neurotrophins nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin-3 (NT3), and BDNF on distal neurite elongation from adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Neurons were plated in the center compartments of three-chambered(More)
Regeneration following axonal injury of the adult peripheral sensory nervous system is heavily influenced by factors located in a neuron's extracellular environment. These factors include neurotrophins, such as Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and the extracellular matrix, such as laminin. The presence of these molecules in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is a(More)