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The aim of this study was to establish methodological variability in the estimation of the total number of neurones using the optical disector. Variations in the 3 dimensions of the disector probe were analysed under uniform sampling conditions in 50-microns-thick frozen sections of the human mediodorsal thalamic nucleus. There was no significant difference(More)
The present immunohistochemical study provides evidence that the kynurenine pathway is up-regulated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, leading to increases in the excitotoxin quinolinic acid (QUIN). We show that the regulatory enzyme of the pathway leading to QUIN synthesis, indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) is abundant in AD compared with controls. In AD(More)
The present study investigated the effect of age on total and regional brain volumes and compared age-associated changes in 20 healthy controls with those observed in 12 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Weights and volumes of the whole brain and cerebrum, as well as the fractional volumes of the frontal, temporal, and parieto-occipital cortices,(More)
Neurofibrillary tangle staging was compared in the nucleus basalis and cerebral cortex of Alzheimer's disease patients with and without Lewy body disease. In pure Alzheimer's disease, cholinergic nucleus basalis cell number, as determined from counts in serial forebrain sections, was 22-60% of control mean, with the majority of residual cells containing(More)
The basal nucleus of Meynert, incorporating the Ch4 group of cholinergic neurons, was examined in six patients with no signs of neurological abnormalities. The ages of the patients ranged from 20 to 80 years. Despite a number of descriptions of these neurons, few age-related studies have been dedicated to the analysis of the entire anteroposterior extent of(More)
Some of the tryptophan catabolites produced through the kynurenine pathway (KP), and more particularly the excitotoxin quinolinic acid (QA), are likely to play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have previously shown that the KP is over activated in AD brain and that QA accumulates in amyloid plaques and within dystrophic neurons. We(More)
The kynurenine pathway is a major route of L-tryptophan catabolism producing neuroactive metabolites implicated in neurodegeneration and immune tolerance. We characterized the kynurenine pathway in human neurons and the human SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cell line and found that the kynurenine pathway enzymes were variably expressed. Picolinic carboxylase was(More)
Magnocellular neurons in the cholinergic nucleus basalis appear to be vulnerable in a variety of pathological conditions, including chronic alcoholism. While neurofibrillary degeneration of these neurons has been noted in a number of disorders characterized by dementia, the mechanism of cell death in thiamine-deficient chronic alcoholics has not been(More)
In this post mortem study, we examined haem-rich deposits (HRDs) in patients with and without dementia, using a histochemical label (Prussian blue) to show haem, autofluorescence to detect red blood cells (RBCs), and immunohistochemistry for clotting-related factors and collagen IV. The patients studied had no clinical or post mortem evidence of(More)