Learn More
Cardiac output is regulated by the coordinate interactions of stimulatory sympathetic and inhibitory parasympathetic signals. Intracardiac parasympathetic ganglia are integrative centers of cardiac regulation, and modulation of the parasympathetic drive on the heart is accomplished by altering intrinsic cardiac ganglion neuron excitability. The pituitary(More)
Two forms of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), the 38- and 27-amino-acid forms (PACAP38 and PACAP27, respectively), which share amino acid sequence homology with vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), were evaluated for their abilities to regulate sympathetic neuron catecholamine and neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression. PACAP38 and(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is known to broadly regulate the cellular stress response. In contrast, it is unclear if the PACAP-PAC1 receptor pathway has a role in human psychological stress responses, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here we find, in heavily traumatized subjects, a sex-specific association of(More)
We have investigated the presence of endogenous adenosine and of mechanisms for adenosine uptake and release in chick embryo retinal neurons and photoreceptors grown in purified cultures in the absence of glial cells. Simultaneous autoradiographic and immunocytochemical analysis showed that endogenous adenosine and the uptake mechanism for this nucleoside(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptides (PACAP) have potent regulatory and neurotrophic activities on superior cervical ganglion (SCG) sympathetic neurons with pharmacological profiles consistent for the PACAP-selective PAC(1) receptor. Multiple PAC(1) receptor isoforms are suggested to determine differential peptide potency and receptor(More)
Exposure to chronic stress has been argued to produce maladaptive anxiety-like behavioral states, and many of the brain regions associated with stressor responding also mediate anxiety-like behavior. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its specific G protein-coupled PAC(1) receptor have been associated with many of these stress-(More)
The regulated expression of the peptide and transcript levels of the neurotrophic peptides, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), galanin and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) were examined in sympathetic neurons of the rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG). Real-time quantitative PCR methods were developed to assess modulation of(More)
While expression of neuropeptides by sympathetic neurons is altered by decentralization and axotomy, it is not known whether similar experimental paradigms also modulate the chemical phenotype of parasympathetic cardiac ganglia neurons. The present study tested whether guinea pig parasympathetic neuron neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression was altered when(More)
The intricate relationships that associate pain, stress responses and emotional behavior have been well established. Acute stressful situations can decrease nociceptive sensations and conversely, chronic pain can enhance other pain experiences and heighten the emotional and behavioral consequences of stress. Accordingly, chronic pain is comorbid with a(More)
Although adenosine A1 receptors mediate the inhibition of dopamine-dependent stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity in the developing chick retina, their localization and function are unknown. We have examined the localization of these receptors, and of endogenous adenosine and adenosine uptake sites at several stages of chick retinal development. A1(More)