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Cardiac output is regulated by the coordinate interactions of stimulatory sympathetic and inhibitory parasympathetic signals. Intracardiac parasympathetic ganglia are integrative centers of cardiac regulation, and modulation of the parasympathetic drive on the heart is accomplished by altering intrinsic cardiac ganglion neuron excitability. The pituitary(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is known to broadly regulate the cellular stress response. In contrast, it is unclear if the PACAP-PAC1 receptor pathway has a role in human psychological stress responses, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here we find, in heavily traumatized subjects, a sex-specific association of(More)
Two forms of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), the 38- and 27-amino-acid forms (PACAP38 and PACAP27, respectively), which share amino acid sequence homology with vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), were evaluated for their abilities to regulate sympathetic neuron catecholamine and neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression. PACAP38 and(More)
We have investigated the presence of endogenous adenosine and of mechanisms for adenosine uptake and release in chick embryo retinal neurons and photoreceptors grown in purified cultures in the absence of glial cells. Simultaneous autoradiographic and immunocytochemical analysis showed that endogenous adenosine and the uptake mechanism for this nucleoside(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptides (PACAP) have potent regulatory and neurotrophic activities on superior cervical ganglion (SCG) sympathetic neurons with pharmacological profiles consistent for the PACAP-selective PAC(1) receptor. Multiple PAC(1) receptor isoforms are suggested to determine differential peptide potency and receptor(More)
The regulated expression of the peptide and transcript levels of the neurotrophic peptides, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), galanin and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) were examined in sympathetic neurons of the rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG). Real-time quantitative PCR methods were developed to assess modulation of(More)
Guinea pig atrial whole mount preparations containing the parasympathetic cardiac ganglia were used to establish the expression, distribution and actions of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in atrial tissues. NPY-immunoreactive fibers densely innervated the atrial myocardium and blood vessels. Fibers containing NPY also innervated intrinsic parasympathetic cardiac(More)
Specific sensitive rabbit antisera directed against the adenosine derivative laevulinic acid (O2',3'-adenosine acetal), which are capable of detecting as little as 1 pmol of adenosine by radioimmunoassay and which require more than 1000- to 40,000-fold greater concentrations of adenine nucleotides to displace adenosine binding to antisera, have been(More)
Exposure to chronic stress has been argued to produce maladaptive anxiety-like behavioral states, and many of the brain regions associated with stressor responding also mediate anxiety-like behavior. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its specific G protein-coupled PAC(1) receptor have been associated with many of these stress-(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) are closely related neurotrophic peptides of the secretin/glucagon family. The two peptides are derived from a common ancestral gene and share many functional attributes in neuronal development/regeneration which occur not only from overlapping receptor(More)