Karen Müller Smith

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Several candidate gene polymorphisms have been implicated in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), including DAT1 40bp VNTR, DRD4 7+, and DBH TaqI A2 alleles. We used the Milwaukee longitudinal study of hyperactive (n = 122) and normal (n = 67) children to compare participants with and without these respective polymorphisms on ADHD-related(More)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable and common disorder that partly reflects disturbed dopaminergic function in the brain. Recent genetic studies have shown that candidate genes involved in dopamine signaling and metabolism contribute to ADHD susceptibility. We have initiated genetic studies in a unique cohort of 158 ADHD(More)
The behavior of antigen-specific CD4+ T lymphocytes during initial exposure to antigen probably influences their decision to become primed or tolerized, but this has not been examined directly in vivo. We have therefore tracked such cells in real time, in situ during the induction of oral priming versus oral tolerance. There were marked contrasts with(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine whether children with Navy mothers exhibit higher levels of internalizing and externalizing behavior than children in civilian families and whether deployment affects children's internalizing and externalizing behavior. METHOD Navy mothers who experienced deployment completed a measure assessing children's internalizing and(More)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable and common disorder thought to arise, in part, from alterations in dopamine function. NR4A2, or Nurr1, is an orphan nuclear receptor implicated in the development of dopaminergic cells of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the substantia nigra (SN). Dopaminergic cells of the VTA provide(More)
The surface of the intestinal mucosa is constantly assaulted by food antigens and enormous numbers of commensal microbes and their products, which are sampled by dendritic cells (DCs). Recent work shows that the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) are the key site for tolerance induction to food proteins and that they also act as a firewall to prevent live(More)
The biofilm-forming capacity of 972 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus was tested using a high-throughput polystyrene 96-peg plate format. Isolates of S. aureus were collected from patients in hospitals throughout Scotland from 2004 to 2006; 763 of these were meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and 209 were meticillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA).(More)
Candida albicans infections have become increasingly recognised as being biofilm related. Recent studies have shown that there is a relationship between biofilm formation and poor clinical outcomes in patients infected with biofilm proficient strains. Here we have investigated a panel of clinical isolates in an attempt to evaluate their phenotypic and(More)
Two cationic porphyrins bearing an isothiocyanate group for conjugation to monocolonal antibodies have been synthesized. The two porphyrins conjugated efficiently to three monoclonal antibodies (anti-CD104, anti-CD146 and anti-CD326), which recognize antigens commonly over-expressed on a range of tumour cells. In vitro, all conjugates retained the(More)
Biofilm formation by Candida albicans has shown to be highly variable and is directly associated with pathogenicity and poor clinical outcomes in patients at risk. The aim of this study was to test the hypotheses that the extracellular DNA release by C. albicans is strain dependent and is associated with biofilm heterogeneity. Initially, biofilm formed by(More)