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Several candidate gene polymorphisms have been implicated in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), including DAT1 40bp VNTR, DRD4 7+, and DBH TaqI A2 alleles. We used the Milwaukee longitudinal study of hyperactive (n = 122) and normal (n = 67) children to compare participants with and without these respective polymorphisms on ADHD-related(More)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable and common disorder that partly reflects disturbed dopaminergic function in the brain. Recent genetic studies have shown that candidate genes involved in dopamine signaling and metabolism contribute to ADHD susceptibility. We have initiated genetic studies in a unique cohort of 158 ADHD(More)
The behavior of antigen-specific CD4+ T lymphocytes during initial exposure to antigen probably influences their decision to become primed or tolerized, but this has not been examined directly in vivo. We have therefore tracked such cells in real time, in situ during the induction of oral priming versus oral tolerance. There were marked contrasts with(More)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable and common disorder thought to arise, in part, from alterations in dopamine function. NR4A2, or Nurr1, is an orphan nuclear receptor implicated in the development of dopaminergic cells of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the substantia nigra (SN). Dopaminergic cells of the VTA provide(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine whether children with Navy mothers exhibit higher levels of internalizing and externalizing behavior than children in civilian families and whether deployment affects children's internalizing and externalizing behavior. METHOD Navy mothers who experienced deployment completed a measure assessing children's internalizing and(More)
Possible changes in muscle size and function due to resistance training were examined in prepubertal boys. Thirteen boys (9-11 yr) volunteered for each of the training and control groups. Progressive resistance training was performed three times weekly for 20 wk. Measurements consisted of the following: 1 repetition maximum (RM) bench press and leg press;(More)
The relative ability of Th1 and Th2 T cells to help B cells remains controversial as do the mechanisms by which both T cell subsets provide help in vivo. Whether this help affects the clonal expansion and/or differentiation of B cells has been difficult to assess due to the low frequency of Ag-specific T and B lymphocytes. We have employed a novel technique(More)
The surface of the intestinal mucosa is constantly assaulted by food antigens and enormous numbers of commensal microbes and their products, which are sampled by dendritic cells (DCs). Recent work shows that the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) are the key site for tolerance induction to food proteins and that they also act as a firewall to prevent live(More)
Inducing T cell responses requires at least two distinct signals: 1) TCR engagement of MHC-peptide and 2) binding of CD28 to B7.1/2. However, the recent avalanche of newly described costimulatory molecules may represent additional signals which can modify events after the initial two-signal activation. Inducible costimulatory molecule (ICOS) is a CD28(More)
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a lung inflammatory disorder characterized by accumulation of T lymphocytes. However, the mechanisms implicated in this process remain undefined. We examined the expression of dendritic cell (DC)-derived CC chemokine 1 (CK1)/CCL18, a chemokine putatively involved in naive T cell recruitment, in lungs from 10 patients(More)