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CONTEXT Ceftriaxone, an expanded-spectrum cephalosporin, is an antimicrobial agent commonly used to treat severe Salmonella infections, especially in children. Ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella infections have recently been reported in the United States, but the extent of the problem is unknown. OBJECTIVES To summarize national surveillance data for(More)
The bioterrorism-associated human anthrax epidemic in the fall of 2001 highlighted the need for a sensitive, reproducible, and specific laboratory test for the confirmatory diagnosis of human anthrax. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed, optimized, and rapidly qualified an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for immunoglobulin G(More)
Anti-protective antigen (PA) immunoglobulin (Ig) G, toxin neutralization, and PA-specific IgG memory B cell responses were studied in patients with bioterrorism-related cutaneous or inhalation anthrax and in a patient with laboratory-acquired cutaneous anthrax. Responses were determined for >1 year after the onset of symptoms. Eleven days after the onset of(More)
We describe 46 Cryptococcus gattii-infected persons identified by population-based surveillance conducted in South Africa. Most patients with C. gattii infection presented with meningitis. The mortality rate during hospitalization was 36%. We found no significant differences between persons with and persons without C. gattii infection with regard to(More)
Bacillus anthracis, the bacterium that causes anthrax, is responsible for varying death rates among animal species. Difficulties in case detection, hazardous or inaccessible carcasses, and misdiagnosis hinder surveillance. Using case reports and a new serologic assay that enables multispecies comparisons, we examined exposure to and illness caused by B.(More)
An anti-Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (anti-AVA) standard human reference serum pool, AVR414, has been prepared, and the total and protective antigen (PA)-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) were quantified. AVR414 was prepared by plasmapheresis of healthy adults who had received a minimum of four subcutaneous injections of AVA. Mass values (in milligrams per(More)
To evaluate multidrug-resistant strains of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, including definitive type 104 (DT104) in the United States, we reviewed data from the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS). In 1997 to 1998, 703 (25%) of 2,767 serotyped Salmonella isolates received at NARMS were S. Typhimurium; antimicrobial(More)
Quantification of anthrax lethal toxin (LTx) neutralization activity (TNA) is pivotal in assessing protective antibody responses to anthrax vaccines and for evaluation of immunotherapies for anthrax. We have adapted and redesigned the TNA assay to establish a unifying, standardized, quantitative and validated technology platform for LTx neutralization in(More)
The lethal toxin produced during Bacillus anthracis infection is a complex of protective antigen, which localizes the toxin to the cell receptor, and lethal factor (LF), a zinc-dependent endoproteinase whose known targets include five members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) family of response regulators. We have developed a method for(More)